BioInfo (UK)

FUNGI S.S. (true fungi)

BioImages BioImages (www.bioimages.org.uk) has 36957 images of FUNGI S.S. (true fungi)

NBN NBN (data.nbn.org.uk) has the UK distribution map of FUNGI S.S. (true fungi)

FRDBI FRDBI (www.fieldmycology.net/gbchklst/gbchklst.asp) has the UK and Ireland records of FUNGI S.S. (true fungi)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Kingdom)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs
Aegeritella superficialis Bal. & Wisn. ((An Anamorphic Fungus)) Anamorphic Species   2 2
Aegeritella tuberculata Bal. & Wisn. ((An Anamorphic Fungus)) Anamorphic Species   1  
Anamorphic fungi (mitosporic fungi) Species aggregate   9  
ASCOMYCOTA Caval.-Sm. (spore shooters) Phylum 5620 subtaxa 2293 19512
BASIDIOMYCOTA R.T. Moore (spore droppers) Phylum 3888 subtaxa 3762 16120
BLASTOCLADIOMYCOTA (a phylum of fungi) Phylum 12 subtaxa 3 30
Capillaria (Bot.) Pers. (a genus of fungi) Genus     6
CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA Arx (chytridomycete fungi, chytrids) Phylum 160 subtaxa 77 354
GLOMEROMYCOTA C. Walker & A. Schüssler (AM fungi) Phylum 2 subtaxa 6 5
MICROSPORIDIA (microsporidians) Phylum 3 subtaxa    
MICROSPOREA (a class of fungi) Class 3 subtaxa    
Nosema (a bee-infecting genus of microsporidians) Genus 3 subtaxa 3 4
ZYGOMYCOTA Moreau (pin moulds) Phylum 80 subtaxa 74 160
(Ectomycorrhizal fungi) (fungi that form ectomycorrhizae) Informal 1066 subtaxa 971 2634
(Gasteromycetes) (puffballs, earthstars, earthballs, stinkhorns, truffles etc.) Informal 178 subtaxa 219 363
(Lichenes) (lichens) Informal 720 subtaxa 206 1499
(Macromycetes) (larger fungi, macrofungi) Informal 3041 subtaxa 2961 8933
(Micromycetes) (microfungi) Informal 12521 subtaxa 5468 47959

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Index of fungi pages or photographs on The Net: http://www.grzyby.pl/fglobal-directory.htm Index of fungi pages or photographs on The Net
Norwegian fungus of the month: http://www.uio.no/conferences/imc7/ Norwegian fungus of the month
Svampe: http://www.svampe.net/ Svampe
Mikologia: http://www.aranzadi.eus/micologia/a?lang=eu Mikologia
Buczacki, S., 1989 Fungi of Britain and Europe
Dickinson, C. & Lucas, J., 1979 The Encyclopedia of Mushrooms
Fungi Images on the Net: http://www.in2.dk/fungi/imageintroTxt.htm Fungi Images on the Net
Massee, G., 1911 British Fungi with a chapter on Lichens (British Fungi and Lichens)
Ryman, S., Holmasen, I., 1984 Svampar - en falthandbok
Fungi of Poland: http://www.grzyby.pl Fungi of Poland
Leif & Anita Stridvall's Botanical Site: http://www.stridvall.se/la/index.php Leif & Anita Stridvall's Botanical Site
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): http://users.skynet.be/jjw.myco.mons Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

Dung fungi

Doveri, F., 2007 Fungi Fimicoli Italici: a guide to the recognition of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes living on faecal material

Ecology

Entomogenous fungi
Leatherdale, D., 1958 Host Catalogue of British Entomogenous Fungi
Leatherdale, D., 1962 Host Catalogue of British Entomogenous Fungi: first supplement
Leatherdale, D., 1966 Host Catalogue of British Entomogenous Fungi: second supplement
Leatherdale, D., 1970 The arthropod hosts of entomogenous fungi in Britain
Fairy rings
Rutter, G., 2002 Fairy Rings

Hypogeous fungi

Montecchi A. & Sarasini, M., 2000 Funghi Ipogei D'Europa

Lichenicolous fungi

Hawksworth, D.L., 1983 A Key to the Lichen-forming, Parasitic, Parasymbiotic and Saprophytic Fungi occurring on Lichens in the British Isles

Myxomyceticolous fongi

Ing, B., 1976 More on Mouldy Myxomycetes

Myxomyceticolous fungi

Ing, B., 1974 Mouldy Myxomyxcetes
Rogerson, C.T. & Stephenson, S.L., 1993 Myxomyceticolous Fungi

Pathology

Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi

Plant galls

Darlington, A., 1968 A Pocket Encyclopedia of Plant Galls in colour
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2011 British Plant Galls
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986 Provisional Keys to British Plant Galls

Plant pathology

HYP3: Species - Crop diseases: http://www.inra.fr/internet/Produits/HYP3/species.htm HYP3: Species - Crop diseases
Phytopathology.net: http://www.phytopathology.net Phytopathology.net

General Works

Fungi of Great Britain and Ireland: http://s2.fungi.myspecies.info/ Fungi of Great Britain and Ireland
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew - RBG(K): http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew - RBG(K)
UK Fungi discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fungi-BritishIsles/join UK Fungi discussion group
Ainsworth, G.C. & Sussman, A.S. (eds), 1965 The Fungi, An Advanced Treatise: Volume I, The Fungal Cell
Ainsworth, G.C. & Sussman, A.S. (eds), 1966 The Fungi, An Advanced Treatise: Volume II, The Fungal Organism
Ainsworth, G.C. & Sussman, A.S. (eds), 1968 The Fungi, An Advanced Treatise: Volume III, The Fungal Population
Ainsworth, G.C., Sparrow, F.K. & Sussman, A.S. (eds), 1973 The Fungi, An Advanced Treatise: Volume IVA, a taxonomic review with keys: ascomycetes and fungi imperfecti
Ainsworth, G.C., Sparrow, F.K. & Sussman, A.S. (eds), 1973 The Fungi, An Advanced Treatise: Volume IVB, a taxonomic review with keys: myxomycetes, phycomycetes, basidiomycetes and lower fungi
Anon, 2014 Building the infrastructure for conservation of fungi in the UK: the Lost and Found project
Fungal Records Database of Britain and Ireland: http://www.fieldmycology.net/GBCHKLST/gbchklst.asp Fungal Records Database of Britain and Ireland
Dighton, J., White, J.F. & Oudemans, P., eds., 2005 The Fungal Community
Eastwood, D.J., 1952 The fungus flora of composts
Fungal databases - Fungus-Host Distributions: http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/fungushost/FungusHost.cfm Fungal databases - Fungus-Host Distributions
Gregory, P.H., 1952 Presidential address: Fungus Spores
Holden, L., 2006 Putting Fungi on the map: a new name and outlet for the BMS Fungal Records Database
Association of British Fungus Groups (ABFG): http://www.abfg.org Association of British Fungus Groups (ABFG)
Kendrick, B. (Ed.), 1979 The Whole Fungus
Cybertruffle: http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk Cybertruffle
Roberts, P. & Evans, S., 2011 The book of fungi: a life-size guide to six hundred species from around the World.
Chemical reagents: http://www.britmycolsoc.org.uk/mycology/microscopy/reagents/ Chemical reagents
Spooner, B. & Roberts, P., 2005 Fungi
Talbot, P.H.B., 1952 Dispersal of fungus spores by small animals inhabiting wood and bark
Twomey, D.G., 1977 The rapid preparation of micro-fungi for microscopic observations
Wainwright, M., 1987 Can fungi grow on 'fresh air'?
Wainwright, M., 1989 Fungi have seen the light
Watling, R., 1969 Colour Identification Chart
Watling, R., 1988 Presidential Address
Webster, J., 1980 Introduction to Fungi

Code

McNeill, J.; Barrie, F. R.; Buck, W. R. et al., eds., 2012 International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN)

Conservation

Ainsworth, M., 2004 BAP fungi handbook
Dahlberg, A., Genney, D.R. & HeilmannClausen, J., 2010 Developing a comprehensive strategy for fungal conservation in Europe: current status and future needs
Dove, N.C. & Keeton, W.S., 2015 Structural Complexity Enhancement increases fungal species richness in northern hardwood forests
Kirby, K.J., 1998 The conservation of fungi in Britain

Ecology

Boddy, L., 1993 Saprotrophic cord-forming fungi: warfare strategies and other ecological aspects
Bolton, R.G. & Boddy, L., 1993 Characterization of the spatial aspects of foraging mycelial cord systems using fractal geometry
Burford, E.P., Kierans, M. & Gadd, G.M., 2003 Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata
Burges, A., 1950 The downward movement of fungal spores in sandy soil
Lindahl, B.D. & Olsson, S., 2004 Fungal translocation - creating and responding to environmental heterogeneity
Money, N.P., 2004 The fungal dining habit: a biomechanical perspective
Newton, A.C. & Haigh, J.M., 1998 Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Britain: a test of the species-area relationship, and the role of host specificity
Schwarze, F.W.M.R., Engels, J. & Matteck, C., 2000 Fungal Strategies of Wood Decay in Trees
Watkinson, S.C., Boddy. L. et al, 2006 New approaches to investigating the function of mycelial networks
Endophytes
anon., 2007 Fungal Endophytes
Keratinophiles
English, M.P., 1971 Forays among the funguses of small wild animals
Mycorrhiza
Finlay, R.D., 2005 Mycorrhizal symbiosis: myths, misconceptions, new perspectives and future research priorities
Taylor, A.S. & Alexander, I., 2005 The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: life in the real world

Endophytes

Promputtha, I., Hyde, K.D., McKenzie, E.H.C., Peberdy, J.F. & Lumyong, S., 2010 Can leaf degrading enzymes provide evidence that endophytic fungi becoming saprobes?

English names

Holden, L., 2003 List of Recommended English Names for Fungi in the UK

Hosts

Projet Aulnaies - programme d’inventaire et de typologie mycologique des aulnaies françaises: http://projet.aulnaies.free.fr/ Projet Aulnaies - programme d’inventaire et de typologie mycologique des aulnaies françaises
Blackwell, E., 2004 Some Hints on Identifying Wood in the Field
FRDBI Hosts: http://www.fieldmycology.net/FRDBI/assoc.asp FRDBI Hosts
Richardson, M.J., 1979 An Annotated list of Seed-borne Diseases

Journal

Icones
Icones Mycologicae Journal

Journals

Acta Mycologica Journal
Bulletin Trimestriel de la Societe Mycologique de France Journal
Cryptogamie Mycologie (Cryptog., Mycol) Journal
Czech Mycology Journal
Fungal Diversity (FungalDiversity) Journal
Fungal Ecology (FungEcol) Journal
Fungal Genetics and Biology Journal
Fungi non Delineati (FND) Journal
Fungi Non Delineati raro vel haud perspecte et explorate descripti aut definite picti (Fungi Non Delineati) Journal
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology Journal
Karstenia Journal
Mycokeys Journal
Mycorrhiza Journal
Mycosphere online - journal of fungal biology (Mycosphere) Journal
Mycosystema Journal
Mycotaxon Journal
Nordic Journal of Botany Journal
Persoonia Journal
Rev. de Mycol. Journal
Schlechtendaliahttp://www.botanik.uni-halle.de/publikationen/schlechtendalia/ Journal
Scripta Mycologia Journal
Sydowia Journal
Sydowia, Annales Mycologici Ser. II Journal
Thunbergia Journal
Documents Mycologiques, Nouvelle série Journal
Field Mycology Journal
Bulletin of the British Mycological Society (Bull. Br. mycol. Soc.) Journal
Fungal Biology Journal
Fungal Biology Reviews Journal
Mycological Research (Mycol. Res.) Journal
Mycologist Journal
Mycologist News Journal
News Bulletin of the British Mycological Society (BMSNB) Journal
Transactions of the British Mycological Society (TBMS) Journal
Studies in Mycology (Stud. Mycol.) Journal
Mycological Progress Journal
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde (Österr. Z. Pilzk.) Journal
Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh Journal
Kew Bulletin Journal
Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France Journal
Mycologia Journal
Medical and veterinary
CMI Descriptions of Pathenogenic Fungi and Bacteria Journal
Plant galls
Cecidology Journal
Plant pathology
Gardeners Chronicle Journal
Phytopathology Journal
Phytopathology Journal
Plant Pathology Journal
Plant Pathology Online Journal
Plant Protection News Journal
New Disease Reports Journal
CMI Descriptions of Pathenogenic Fungi and Bacteria Journal
PRAs for consultation on pest risk management Journal
Regional
Mycologia Balcanica Journal
Polish Botanical Journal Journal
HSFG News Sheet Journal

Libraries and Museums

Libri Fungorum: http://194.203.77.76/Librifungorum/index.htm Libri Fungorum

Lichenicolous fungi

Fox, H.F., in prep. Census catalogue of the lichenicolous fungi of Ireland
Hawksworth, D.L., 2003 The lichenicolous fungi of Great Britain and Ireland: an overview and annotated checklist
Hawksworth, D.L., 2004 Fungi living on lichens: a source of unexplored diversity

Marine

Jones, E.B.G., 1988 Do fungi occur in the sea?
Landy, E.T. & Jones, G.M., 2006 (Checklist of European marine species) What is the Fungal Diversity of Marine Ecosystems in Europe?

Medical

Pegler, D.N. & Watling, R., 1982 British Toxic Fungi
Rätsch, A., 2005 (The main source of information on species containing psilocin etc) The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants. Ethnopharmacology and its Applications
Botanical Dermatology Database (BoDD): http://bodd.cf.ac.uk/ (Allergens) Botanical Dermatology Database (BoDD)

Microscopy

Coupin, J. & D., 1908 Atlas de Botanique Microscopique
Stainsfile: the internet resource for histotechnologists: http://stainsfile.info/StainsFile/jindex.html Stainsfile: the internet resource for histotechnologists
Omar, M.B., Bolland, L. & Heather, W.A., 1979 A permanent mounting medium for Fungi

Nature conservation

Evans, S., Marren, P. & Harper, M. Important Fungus Areas - a provisional assessment of the best sites for fungi in the United Kingdom
Evans, S., in prep. Red Data List for Fungi
Hodgetts, N.G., 1996 Conservation of Lower Plants in Woodland
Ing, B., 1992 A provisional Red Data List of British fungi
Orton, P.D., 1994 Some comments on 'A Provisional Red Data List of British Fungi' by B. Ing
The UK Provisional BAP species: http://abfg.org/bap1.php The UK Provisional BAP species

Plant parasites

DEFRA Plant Health - Pests and Diseases: http://www.defra.gov.uk/planth/pests.htm DEFRA Plant Health - Pests and Diseases

Plant pathology

Holliday, P., 1990 A Dictionary of Plant Pathology
Ingram, D. & Robertson, N. Plant Disease: A Natural History

Predatory fungi

Duddington, C.L., 1951 The Ecology of Predacious Fungi I: Preliminary survey.

Regional newsletters

Pembrokeshire Fungus Recording Network Newsletter Journal

Regional studies

Crawley, M., 2005 The Flora of Berkshire
Dennis, R.W.G., 1986 Fungi of the Hebrides
Dickson, G. & Leonard, A., 1996 Fungi of the New Forest - A Mycota
Hall, G.S., Hawksworth, D.L. & Livingstone, S., 1994 Isolation of microfungi from soil and water samples from the Slapton Ley National Nature Reserve

Societies

Société Mycologique de France: http://www.mycofrance.org Société Mycologique de France

Species and speciation

Bidartondo, M. & Gardes, M., 2005 Fungal Diversity in Molecular Terms: profiling, identification, and quantification in the environment
Taylor, J.W., et al, 2000 Phylogenetic Species Recognition and Species Concepts in Fungi

Spore shape

Hyde, K.D., Greenwood, R. & Jones, E.B.G., 1993 Spore attachment in marine fungi

Suppliers

Micro-science/Mycology: https://micro-science.co.uk/mycology.html Micro-science/Mycology
Polybags Ltd: http://www.polybags.co.uk Polybags Ltd

Taxonomy

Index Fungorum: http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/NAMES.ASP Index Fungorum

Techniques

Armitage, F.D., 1945 Chlorazol Black E as a stain for mycological specimens

FUNGI S.S. may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
Fungi s.l.

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

FUNGI S.S. is associated with:

mycelium Goodyera repens - Creeping Lady's-tresses (Asparagales: Orchidaceae) live mycelium is mycorrhizal with live root Harrap, A. & S., 2009
mycelium Hammarbya paludosa - Bog Orchid (Asparagales: Orchidaceae) live mycelium is mycorrhizal with live root Harrap, A. & S., 2009
mycelium Liparis loeselii - Fen Orchid (Asparagales: Orchidaceae) live mycelium is mycorrhizal with live root Harrap, A. & S., 2009

Associated with FUNGI S.S.:

is food source of female macropter Hoplothrips corticis - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
is food source of female micropter Hoplothrips corticis - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
is food source of male micropter Hoplothrips corticis - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
is food source of larva Hoplothrips corticis - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
is parasitised by clustered apothecium Unguiculariopsis ilicincola - a discomycete (Helotiales: Helotiaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1998
is parasitised by scattered, mostly superficial perithecium Syspastospora parasitica - a pyrenomycete (Melanosporales: Ceratostomataceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1998
fruitbody (small) small fruitbody is food source of larva Aphodius (Liothorax) plagiatus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986 [in hollows on sandhills]
fruitbody (small) fruitbody (small) is food source of adult Scolopostethus pictus - a ground bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
fruitbody (small) fruitbody (small) is food source of nymph Scolopostethus pictus - a ground bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
fruitbody (subterranean) subterranean fruitbody may contain larva Odonteus armiger - a dumbledor (Coleoptera: Bolboceratidae) Restricted Jessop, L., 1986
fruitbody fruitbody is food source of Aradus depressus - a flat bark bug (Hemiptera: Aradidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
fruitbody fruitbody is parasitised by colony of Calcarisporium anamorph Calcarisporium arbuscula - an anamorphic fungus (Hypocreales) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
hypha (live, shrivelled) live, shrivelled hypha is parasitised by hyphal coil of Arthrobotrys anamorph Arthrobotrys oligospora - a nematode-trapping anamorphic fungus (Orbiliales: Orbiliaceae) Nordbring-Hertz, B., 2004
hyphae hyphae is food source of adult Drymus (Sylvadrymus) brunneus - a ground bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
hyphae hyphae is food source of nymph Drymus (Sylvadrymus) brunneus - a ground bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
hyphae hyphae is food source of nymph Drymus (Sylvadrymus) sylvaticus - a ground bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
hyphae hyphae is food source of adult Drymus (Sylvadrymus) sylvaticus - a ground bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
mycelium mycelium is food source of nymph Aneurus (Aneurodes) avenius - a flat bark bug (Hemiptera: Aradidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
mycelium mycelium is food source of nymph Aneurus (Aneurus) laevis - a flat bark bug (Hemiptera: Aradidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
mycelium mycelium is food source of adult Aneurus (Aneurus) laevis - a flat bark bug (Hemiptera: Aradidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
mycelium mycelium is food source of nymph Aradus corticalis - a flat bark bug (Hemiptera: Aradidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
mycelium mycelium is food source of Aradus depressus - a flat bark bug (Hemiptera: Aradidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
mycelium mycelium is parasitised by sporangiophore Mortierella bainieri - a pin mould (Mortierellales: Mortierellaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1998
mycelium mycelium is parasitised by sporangiophore Piptocephalis repens - a pin mould (Zoopagales: Piptocephalidaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1998
sclerotium sclerotium is parasitised by fruitbody Tetragoniomyces uliginosus - a jelly fungus (Tremellales: Tetragoniomycetaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [in marshes]
spore spore is food source of female Megalothrips bonannii - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
spore spore is food source of male Megalothrips bonannii - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
spore spore is food source of larva Megalothrips bonannii - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976

Fungi s.s. may be associated with more taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

Fungi s.l.

Further Information

Notes (MWS) The Fungi are a large group of organisms which are ubiquitous in terrestrial habitats. They are less abundant in freshwater habitats and comparatively rare in in the sea. Fungi are characterised by a filamentous growth form (mycelium), reproduction by haploid spores, and a sexual cycle which involves delayed nuclear fusion (dikaryon). A few groups form large sporulating colonies (mushrooms, toadstools, brackets etc).

Although usually thought of as decomposers, many have other lifestyles. Some are parasitic; a small number of these are of medical importance, but most are plant parasites and a few are economically very significant.

Other fungi form symbiotic relationships with plant roots (mycorrhiza). The fungus mycelium is able to permeate the soil further afield than the plant's root hairs and so can harvest minerals from a larger soil volume. These are made available to the plant while sugars from photosynthesis leak from the roots to the fungus. Many of the most striking autumn toadstools (Amanita, Cortinarius, Tricholoma, Boletus sl.) are mycorrhizal with forest trees (esp Oak, Beech, Hazel, Willow, Birch and Pine). Most other plants and trees are mycorrhizal with lower fungi like the Pea Truffles (Endogone). The exception is the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae, which is not known to form mycorrhizal associations and is rarely affected by Rust Fungi (the exception to the exception is Scurvy Grass - Cochlearia spp.) - this is probably due to the mustard oils which give them their distinctive flavour and smell.

Mycorrhizal fungi can be parasitised by higher plants, maybe with another fungus as intermediary. The plants formerly called "Saprophytes" fall into this category: there is insufficient nitrogen or useable carbohydrate in leaf litter to support a flowering plant.

Lichens are another example of fungi forming symbioses with photosynthetic organisms, in this case: algae or cyanobacteria. The combined organism is able to live in much harsher environments than either could alone. Some lichens grow just inside rocks (endolithic) where they wait for erosion processes to release their spores.

Prof D.L. Hawksworth has estimated that there are 6 species of fungus for every species of flowering plant, suggesting there are 1.5 million species of fungi on Earth. Less than 20% of these are known to science, although in Europe, which has been well-studied, the percentage is far greater.
Curation Fungal specimens are best preserved by drying.

Infected plant material can be lightly pressed, although if there is superficial growth, this will be damaged and may be lost. Most people use gentle warmth for everything from leaf-spots to fleshy toadstools.

This can be as simple as the top of a radiator, although purpose-built driers such as those sold for drying fruit give the best results. Large fleshy species can be placed in the air stream from a fan heater for fast, effective results even with fragile species like inkcaps.

Infected leaves can be placed in folded blotting paper, lightly weighted on top to prevent them curling up too much.

The time taken to dry varies with the method, but can be from a few hours for infected leaves, overnight for small to medium toadstools, or longer for large toadstools or brackets. Large toadstools can become sealed by a dry layer on the outside, but leaving them at room temperature for a day allows the remaining moisture to soften this skin so drying can be resumed.

Leaves will curl and go crisp otherwise weight is the easiest way to tell when a specimen is dry. At this point it's best to leave them at room temperature for a day to soften up, otherwise they can be very fragile.

Dried material keeps reasonably well but is attacked by a variety of pests, especially booklice and mites, and to a lesser extent museum/carpet beetles. Dried material is conventionally stored in paper envelopes, but this gives no protection from insects, so the envelopes need to be stored in batches in sealable plastic bags or boxes. Avoid storing the specimens directly in individual plastic bags as static electricity from handling the bags will make extracting the dried material all but impossible.
Lab. techniques Except for some of the more distinctive larger species, microscopic examination is always required to identify fungi. Staining is often necessary to make hyaline tissues and spores visible - the question is what stain to use? As a rule of thumb: if it has basidia, use Phloxine; if it has asci, use Melzer's Iodine; other hyaline ascomycete structures can be stained with Congo Red. Anamorphic fungi generally stain well in Cotton Blue, although dematiaceous hyphomycetes generally need no staining.
Taxonomic notes True fungi, including mushrooms, toadstools, cup fungi, moulds and lichens, but excluding those groups which used to be regarded as fungi until modern research showed them to be closer to algae (oomycetes) or protozoa (slime moulds).

References

Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 Microfungi on Land Plants: An Identification Handbook
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1998 Microfungi on Miscellaneous Substrates: An Identification Handbook
Harrap, A. & S., 2009 Orchids of Britain & Ireland: a field and site guide
Jessop, L., 1986 Dung Beetles and Chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)
Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 Checklist of the British and Irish Basidiomycota
Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976 Thysanoptera
Nordbring-Hertz, B., 2004 Morphogenesis in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora – an extensive plasticity of infection structures
Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles
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