BioInfo (UK)

(Macromycetes) (larger fungi, macrofungi)

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Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Informal)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs
MORCHELLACEAE Rchb. (morels) Family 12 subtaxa 21 30
Peziza Fr. (a genus of cup fungi) Genus 18 subtaxa 19 39
AGARICALES Underw. (mushrooms and toadstools) Order 2079 subtaxa 1989 5843
CORTINARIACEAE R. Heim ex Pouzar (webcaps, rootshanks and the gypsy) Family 254 subtaxa 125 446
SCHIZOPHYLLACEAE Quél. (a family of basidiomycete fungi) Family 3 subtaxa    
Auriculariopsis albomellea Species   1  
Schizophyllum amplum (Lév.) Nakasone (a basidiomycete fungus) Species   3 8
Schizophyllum commune Fr. (Splitgill, Common Porecrust) Species   5 13
AURICULARIACEAE Fr. (a family of jelly fungi) Family 16 subtaxa 40 160
BOLETACEAE Chevall. (sponge cap toadstools) Family 78 subtaxa 146 299
GOMPHIDIACEAE Maire ex Jülich (spike toadstools) Family 4 subtaxa 4 13
PAXILLACEAE Lotsy (a family of bolete toadstools) Family 7 subtaxa 17 30
RHIZOPOGONACEAE Gäum. & C.W. Dodge (beard truffles) Family 6 subtaxa 6 11
CANTHARELLALES Gäum. (chanterelles, hedgehog fungi and some fairy clubs and resupinates) Order 94 subtaxa 76 379
HYMENOCHAETACEAE Imazeki & Toki (a family of bracket fungi) Family 37 subtaxa 51 294
PHALLALES E. Fisch. (stinkhorns, cage and coral fungi, earthstars, truffles and fairy clubs) Order 12 subtaxa 30 12
RUSSULALES Kreisel ex P.M. Kirk, P.F. Cannon & J.C. David (an order of toadstools) Order 320 subtaxa 267 1106
THELEPHORALES Corner ex Oberw. (an order of basidiomycete fungi) Order 66 subtaxa 76 171
DACRYMYCETALES Henn. (an order of jelly fungi) Order 19 subtaxa 17 76

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Bon, M., 1987 The Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North-western Europe
Boudier, 1905 Icones mycologicæ, ou Iconographie des champignons de France principalement Discomycetes
Bresadola, G., 1927 Iconographia Mycologica
Brightman, F.H. & Nicholson, B.E., 1966 The Oxford Book of Flowerless Plants
Buczacki, S., 2012 Collins Fungi Guide
Cetto, B., 1970 Funghi Dal Vero
Courtecuisse, R. & Duhem, B., 1995 Mushrooms & Toadstools of Britain & Europe
Courtecuisse, R., 1999 Mushrooms of Britain and Europe
Dähncke, R.M. & S.M., 1980 700 Pilze in Farbfotos
Dam, N., Kuyper, T.W., 2013 Veldgids Paddenstoelen: Plaatjeszwammen en Boleten
Leif Goodwin Photography: Leif Goodwin Photography
Grünert, H. & R., 1991 Field Guide to Mushrooms of Britain and Europe
Hansen, L & Knudsen, H (Eds), 1992 Nordic Macromycetes, Vol 2 (Polyp., Bolet., Agaric., Russ.)
Hansen, L & Knudsen, H, 1997 Nordic Macromycetes, Vol 3. (Hetero., Aphylloph., Gastero.)
Henrici, A., 2002 Update on Roger Phillips' Mushrooms and other fungi of Gt. Britain & Europe, further additions and corrections
Keizer, G., 1997 Encyclopedaedia of Fungi
Laessøe, T. & del Conte, A., 1996 The Mushroom Book
Lange, J.E., 1935 Flora Agaricina Danica (5 volumes)
Lange, M. & Hora, F.B., 1963 Mushrooms and Toadstools
Ludwig, E., 2000 Pilzkompendium - band 1 - abbildungen
Marchand, A., 1971 Champignons du Nord et du Midi (9 volumes)
Orton, P.D., 1964 Notes on British Agarics II
Pacioni, G., 1985 Macdonald Encyclopedia of Mushrooms and Toadstool
RogersMushrooms: RogersMushrooms
Phillips, R., 1981 Mushrooms & other Fungi of Great Britain & Europe
Phillips, R., 2006 (A good number of species.) Mushrooms
Svrcek, M., 1983 The Hamlyn book of Mushrooms and Toadstools
Vesterholt, J., 2009 Danmarks Svampe


Watling, R., 1973 Identification of the Larger Fungi


Goidanich, G. & Govi , G., 1997 Funghi e Ambiente: una guida per l'amatore
Base de données mycologique (mycological database): Base de données mycologique (mycological database)
Clés de détermination dichotomiques (dichotomous keys): Clés de détermination dichotomiques (dichotomous keys)
Fungi Growing on Wood by Gary Emberger: Fungi Growing on Wood by Gary Emberger

Simplified key to genera

Clé simplifiée inspirée de l'ouvrage de Phillips: Clé simplifiée inspirée de l'ouvrage de Phillips

General Works

Arnolds, E., 1982 Ecology and coenology of macrofungi in grasslands and moist heathlands in Drenthe, the Netherlands: Part 2. Autoecology, Part 3. Taxonomy
Bond, T.E.T., 1952 A further note on size and form in Agarics
Bond, T.E.T., 1981 Macro-fungi on a garden lawn 1971-8
Ingold, C.T., 1946 Size and Form in Agarics
Marren, P., 2012 Mushrooms
Microscopy of Gilled Mushrooms: Microscopy of Gilled Mushrooms
O'Hanlon, R. & Harrington, T.J., 2012 Macrofungal diversity and ecology in four Irish forest types
Orton, P.D., 1986 Fungi of Northern Pine and Birch woods
Ramsbottom, J., 1925 Mushrooms & Toadstools
Ramsbottom, J., 1953 Mushrooms and Toadstools
Roberts, P. & Evans, S., 2011 The book of fungi: a life-size guide to six hundred species from around the World.
Chemical reagents: Chemical reagents


Ingold, C.T., 2002 A love affair with giant polypores


Ainsworth, M., 2004 BAP fungi handbook
Dahlberg, A., Genney, D.R. & HeilmannClausen, J., 2010 Developing a comprehensive strategy for fungal conservation in Europe: current status and future needs
Dove, N.C. & Keeton, W.S., 2015 Structural Complexity Enhancement increases fungal species richness in northern hardwood forests


Grainger, J., 1946 Ecology of the larger fungi

English names

Evans, S., 2003 Causing a stir with English names
Holden, L., 2003 List of Recommended English Names for Fungi in the UK

Fire sites

Legg, A., 1992 Firesite Agarics
Keys (Newsletter of the B.M.S. Key-Group) No 8: Keys (Newsletter of the B.M.S. Key-Group) No 8


Der Tintling Journal
Field Mycology Journal


Bennel, A.P.l & Watling, R., 1983 Mushroom poisonings in Scotland
Pegler, D.N. & Watling, R., 1982 British Toxic Fungi
Watling, R., 1997 Poisoning by fungi: interesting cases.


Kibby, G., 2015 Recording fungal collections : making a recording sheet


Scottish Fungi - Identification: Scottish Fungi - Identification

Nature conservation

Bratton, J.H., 2003 Habitat management to conserve fungi: a literature review
Stubbs, A.E., 1998 Fungus collecting: a threat to insect populations
The UK Provisional BAP species: The UK Provisional BAP species

Regional newsletters

Pembrokeshire Fungus Recording Network Newsletter Journal

Regional studies

Watling, R., 1997 Secrets and treasures in Edinburgh gardens


Micro-science/Mycology: Micro-science/Mycology

(Macromycetes) may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)
(true fungi)
Fungi s.l.

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

(Macromycetes) is associated with:

There may be taxa associated with Macromycetes listed at higher taxonomic level

(true fungi)

Associated with (Macromycetes):

fruitbody fruitbody is associate of larva Fannia canicularis - Latrine Fly, Small House-fly, Lesser House-fly (Diptera: Fanniidae) van Emden, F.I.,, 1954
fruitbody fruitbody is associate of larva Fannia immutica - a lesser house fly (Diptera: Fanniidae) van Emden, F.I.,, 1954
fruitbody fruitbody is associate of larva Fannia monilis - a lesser house fly (Diptera: Fanniidae) van Emden, F.I.,, 1954

Macromycetes may be associated with more taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

(true fungi)
Fungi s.l.

Further Information

Curation Fungal specimens are best preserved by drying.

Most people use gentle warmth which can be as simple as the top of a radiator, although purpose-built driers such as those sold for drying fruit give the best results. Large fleshy species can be placed in the air stream from a fan heater for fast, effective results even with fragile species like inkcaps.

The time taken to dry varies with the method, but can be overnight for small to medium toadstools, or longer for large toadstools or brackets. Large toadstools can become sealed by a dry layer on the outside, but leaving them at room temperature for a day allows the remaining moisture to soften this skin so drying can be resumed

Specimens are dry when they become very light weight. Then it's best to leave them at room temperature for a day to soften up, otherwise they can be very fragile.

Spore prints should be left to dry at room temperature for 10 or 15 minutes. They can then be protected by wrapping in aluminium foil if you wish. They should be kept with the dried specimen.

A month in a domestic freezer at -18°C will kill insect pests and avoid introducing them to the herbarium.

Dried material keeps reasonably well but is attacked by a variety of pests, especially booklice and mites, and to a lesser extent museum/carpet beetles. If allowed to breed unchecked they'll reduce Russula spp to dust and strip the hymenium off everything else including ascomycetes.

Dried material is conventionally stored in paper envelopes, but this gives no protection from insects, so the envelopes need to be stored in batches in sealable plastic bags or boxes. Avoid storing the specimens directly in individual plastic bags as static electricity from handling the bags will make extracting the dried material all but impossible.

Many people do routinely freeze their herbarium from time to time to keep it free of pests.


van Emden, F.I.,, 1954 Diptera: Cyclorrhapha Calyptrata (I) Sect (a) Tachinidae and Calliphoridae
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