BioInfo (UK)

Malus Mill. (apples)

NBN NBN (data.nbn.org.uk) has the UK distribution map of Malus (apples)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Genus)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs

Suggested Literature

Malus may be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
PLANTAE
(plants)
TRACHEOPHYTA
(vascular plants)
MAGNOLIOPSIDA
(flowering plants)
Broadleaved trees Trees Broadleaved trees and shrubs Trees and shrubs Trees, shrubs, woody and climbing plants (via Broadleaved trees)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

Associated with Malus:

(aphid infested) aphid infested is associate of Heringia - a genus of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) Rotheray, G.E., 1993 [feeding on Eriosoma lanigerum]
(aphid-infested) aphid-infested is associate of larva Meliscaeva cinctella - a hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) Rotheray, G.E., 1993
(dead) dead is decayed by fruitbody Phellinus pomaceus - Cushion Bracket (Hymenochaetales: Hymenochaetaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [weakly parasitic then saprotrophic]
(live) live is parasitised by fruitbody Phellinus pomaceus - Cushion Bracket (Hymenochaetales: Hymenochaetaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [weakly parasitic then saprotrophic]
(live) live may have larva Taeniothrips inconsequens - Pear Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
(live) live may have female Taeniothrips inconsequens - Pear Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
(live) live may have male Taeniothrips inconsequens - Pear Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
is foodplant of larva Anthonomus (Anthonomus) humeralis - a weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Bullock, J.A., 1992
is foodplant of larva Anthonomus (Anthonomus) piri - Apple Bud Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Bullock, J.A., 1992
is foodplant of Polydrusus (Chrysophis) formosus - a weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Morris, M.G., 1997
is foodplant of Phyllobius (Nemoicus) oblongus - Brown Leaf Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Morris, M.G., 1997
is foodplant of larva Magdalis (Porrothus) cerasi - a weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Bullock, J.A., 1992
is foodplant of Malacocoris chlorizans - Delicate Apple Capsid (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
is foodplant of Orthotylus (Orthotylus) marginalis - Dark Green Apple Capsid (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
is foodplant of Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph Diplodia griffoni - a coelomycete (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
is foodplant of pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph Phoma epicoccina - a coelomycete (Pleosporales) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
is foodplant of Cylindrocarpon anamorph Nectria radicicola - a pyrenomycete (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
has sap sucked by nymph Atractotomus mali - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
has sap sucked by adult Atractotomus mali - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
has sap sucked by adult Campylomma verbasci - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
has sap sucked by nymph Campylomma verbasci - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
has sap sucked by adult Compsidolon (Coniortodes) salicellum - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959,
Nau, B.S., 1984
has sap sucked by adult Psallus (Mesopsallus) ambiguus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959,
Nau, B.S., 1984
has sap sucked by nymph Psallus (Mesopsallus) ambiguus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959,
Nau, B.S., 1984
has sap sucked by Eulecanium excrescens - Wisteria Scale (Hemiptera: Coccidae) Foreign MacLeod, A. & Matthews, L., 2005
is associate of imago Magdalis (Odontomagdalis) armigera - a weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Morris, M.G., 2002
is associate of Blepharidopterus angulatus - Black-kneed Apple Capsid (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
is associate of Malacocoris chlorizans - Delicate Apple Capsid (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
apple (black, rotted) black, rotted apple is decayed by Strasseria carpophila - an ascomycete UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G. & Wakefield, E.M., 1946
bark (cankered) cankered bark may be infected and damaged by erumpent, clustered apothecium Pezicula corticola - a discomycete (Helotiales: Dermateaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
bark (cankered) cankered bark may be infected and damaged by conidioma of Cryptosporiopsis coelomycetous anamorph Pezicula corticola - a discomycete (Helotiales: Dermateaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
bark (cankered) cankered bark may be infected and damaged by erumpent stroma Potebniamyces pyri - a discomycete (Leotiales: Bulgariaceae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
bark (cankered) cankered bark may be infected and damaged by conidioma of Phacidiopycnis anamorph Potebniamyces pyri - a discomycete (Leotiales: Bulgariaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
bark (cankered) cankered bark may be infected and damaged by immersed, stromatic, solitary or in small groups perithecium Potebniamyces pyri - a discomycete (Leotiales: Bulgariaceae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
bark bark is decayed by Coniothecium anamorph Coniothecium chomatosporum - an anamorphic ascomycete UK/Ireland Major Moore, W.C., 1959
bark bark is decayed by effuse colony of Monodictys dematiaceous anamorph Monodictys melanopa - a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus (Dothideales) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995,
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (cankered, dyingback) cankered, dyingback branch may be infected and damaged by immersed perithecium Diaporthe perniciosa - a pyrenomycete (Diaporthales: Diaporthaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (cankered, dyingback) cankered, dyingback branch may be infected and damaged by Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph Diaporthe perniciosa - a pyrenomycete (Diaporthales: Diaporthaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (cankered) cankered branch may be infected and damaged by erumpent apothecium Pezicula malicorticis - a discomycete (Helotiales: Dermateaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (cankered) cankered branch may be infected and damaged by conidioma of Cryptosporiopsis coelomycetous anamorph Pezicula malicorticis - a discomycete (Helotiales: Dermateaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (cankered) cankered branch may be infected and damaged by perithecium Nectria galligena - Apple and Pear Canker (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) Major Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes brown fissured canker]
branch (cankered) cankered branch may be infected and damaged by Cylindrocarpon anamorph Nectria galligena - Apple and Pear Canker (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) Major Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes brown fissured canker]
branch (dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back) dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back branch is decayed by widely effused stroma Diatrype stigma - Common Tarcrust (Xylariales: Diatrypaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back) dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back branch is decayed by stromatic, immersed perithecium Diatrype stigma - Common Tarcrust (Xylariales: Diatrypaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead, decorticate, attached) dead, decorticate, attached branch is decayed by fruitbody Vuilleminia cystidiata - a resupinate basidiomycete (Polyporales: Corticiaceae) Foreign Morris, I. & Roberts, P., 1997
branch (dead, fallen) dead, fallen branch is decayed by fruitbody Athelia arachnoidea - a resupinate fungus (Polyporales: Atheliaceae) UK/Ireland Moore, W.C., 1959
branch (dead, often rotten) dead, often rotten branch is decayed by perithecium Nectria peziza - a pyrenomycete (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead, partly buried) dead, partly buried branch is decayed by erect stroma Xylaria hypoxylon - Candle-snuff, Candlesnuff Fungus, Stag's-horn Fungus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead) dead branch may contain larva Tetrops praeustus - Plum Longhorn Beetle, Plum Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Bullock, J.A., 1992
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by hysterothecium Gloniopsis praelonga - an ascomycete (Hysteriales: Hysteriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph Strossmayeria basitricha - a discomycete (Helotiales: Helotiaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by erumpent, short-stalked apothecium Rutstroemia rhenana - a discomycete (Helotiales: Rutstroemiaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by stromatic, in clusters of up to 15 perithecium Nectria cinnabarina - Coral Spot (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by sporodochium of Tubercularia anamorph Nectria cinnabarina - Coral Spot (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by clustered, erumpent through cracks in bark apothecium Plagiostoma alneum - a valsoid pyenomycete (Diaporthales: Gnomoniaceae) Yao, Y.-J. & Spooner, B.M., 1996
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by immersed, grouped in circles perithecium Valsa ambiens - a valsoid pyrenomycete (Diaporthales: Valsaceae) Major Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [extending uniformly along the whole length of twigs and branches]
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by subgregarious to densely scattered, covered then erumpent, blackish grey with paler roundish flat disc stroma of Cytospora anamorph Valsa ambiens - a valsoid pyrenomycete (Diaporthales: Valsaceae) UK/Ireland Major Grove, W.B., 1935,
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [extending uniformly along the whole length of twigs and branches]
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by Nodulisporium anamorph Hypoxylon rubiginosum agg. - rusty woodwarts (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch (dead) dead branch is decayed by widely effused stroma Hypoxylon rubiginosum agg. - rusty woodwarts (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [sometimes surrounded by a black line, and when young, by a pale greenish-yellow zone.]
branch (dead) dead branch is associate of perithecium Nitschkia parasitans - a pyrenomycete (Coronophorales: Nitschkiaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [on stromata of Nectria cinnabarina on this host]
branch (live, decorticate) live, decorticate branch is decayed by fruitbody Vuilleminia cystidiata - a resupinate basidiomycete (Polyporales: Corticiaceae) Foreign Morris, I. & Roberts, P., 1997
branch (live) live branch is decayed by densely encrusting Lepidosaphes ulmi - Mussel Scale (Hemiptera: Coccidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
branch (moribund) moribund branch may contain larva Tetrops praeustus - Plum Longhorn Beetle, Plum Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Bullock, J.A., 1992
branch (white woolly-covered) white woolly-covered branch is galled by Eriosoma lanigerum - Woolly Aphis, American Blight, Woolly Apple Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
branch branch is swollen by immersed stroma Botryosphaeria obtusa - an ascomycete (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes cankers and dieback]
branch branch is swollen by stromatic pseudothecium Botryosphaeria obtusa - an ascomycete (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes cankers and dieback]
branch branch is galled by haustorium Viscum album - Mistletoe (Santalales: Santalaceae) UK/Ireland Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002
branch branch is decayed by erumpent stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph Valsa ceratosperma - a valsoid pyrenomycete (Diaporthales: Valsaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
branch branch is decayed by immersed, in groups of about 10 perithecium Valsa ceratosperma - a valsoid pyrenomycete (Diaporthales: Valsaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
cambium of dead twig (below) below cambium of dead twig is mined by larva Magdalis (Panus) barbicornis - Pear Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) UK/Ireland Morris, M.G., 2002,
Bullock, J.A., 1992
canopy canopy may have swarming adult Melolontha melolontha - Common Cockchafer, May Bug (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
flower (live, aborted) live, aborted flower may contain usually solitary larva Anthonomus (Anthonomus) pomorum - Apple Blossom Weevil, Apple-blossom Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [flower remains closed with dead petals attached],
Bullock, J.A., 1992
flower (live, aborted) live, aborted flower may contain usually solitary adult Anthonomus (Anthonomus) pomorum - Apple Blossom Weevil, Apple-blossom Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [flower remains closed with dead petals attached],
Bullock, J.A., 1992
flower (live, aborted) live, aborted flower may house usually solitary pupa Anthonomus (Anthonomus) pomorum - Apple Blossom Weevil, Apple-blossom Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [flower remains closed with dead petals attached],
Bullock, J.A., 1992
flower bud flower bud is galled by larva Anthonomus (Anthonomus) pomorum - Apple Blossom Weevil, Apple-blossom Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
fruit (live, fallen, brown-rotten) live, fallen, brown-rotten fruit may be infected and damaged by sporodochium of Monilia dematiaceous anamorph Monilinia fructigena - Apple Brown Rot - causative organism (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes brown rot]
fruit (live) live fruit is galled by aecium Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae - American Apple Rust (Pucciniales: Pucciniaceae) Foreign Laundon, G., 1977
fruit (live) live fruit may be infected and damaged by colony of Spilocaea dematiaceous anamorph Venturia inaequalis - Apple Scab Fungus (Pseudosphaeriales: Venturiaceae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [causes dark spots which later become greenish and sometimes cracked and corky.],
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
fruit (overwintered, mummified) overwintered, mummified fruit is decayed by long-stalked, yellowish to greyish brown, gregarious apothecium Monilinia fructigena - Apple Brown Rot - causative organism (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes brown rot]
fruit (rotten) rotten fruit may be infected and damaged by erumpent apothecium Pezicula malicorticis - a discomycete (Helotiales: Dermateaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes fruit rot]
fruit (rotten) rotten fruit may be infected and damaged by conidioma of Cryptosporiopsis coelomycetous anamorph Pezicula malicorticis - a discomycete (Helotiales: Dermateaceae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [causes round, brown, saucer-shaped depressions with concentric rings of pustules producing white spore-tendrils],
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes fruit rot]
fruit (soft, brown, rotten, musty-smelling) soft, brown, rotten, musty-smelling fruit may be infected and damaged by colony of Penicillium dematiaceous anamorph Penicillium expansum - a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) Major Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 ["Blue Mould Rot" (and other Penicillium spp)],
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [especially on fruit in storage]
fruit cracks (cracked, russetted) cracked, russetted fruit cracks is decayed by Coniothecium anamorph Coniothecium chomatosporum - an anamorphic ascomycete UK/Ireland Major Moore, W.C., 1959 [in cracks on russeted fruit]
fruit fruit may contain larva Neocoenorrhinus aequatus - Apple Fruit Rhynchites (Coleoptera: Rhynchitidae) Major Morris, M.G., 1990,
Bullock, J.A., 1992
fruit fruit may contain larva Rhynchites bacchus - a leafroller weevil (Coleoptera: Rhynchitidae) Morris, M.G., 1990
fruit fruit is decayed by sessile apothecium Neofabraea alba - a discomycete (Helotiales: Dermateaceae) Major Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes fruit rot]
fruit fruit is decayed by conidioma of Phlyctema coelomycetous anamorph Neofabraea alba - a discomycete (Helotiales: Dermateaceae) Major Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [causes round, brown, saucer-shaped depressions with concentric rings of pustules producing white spore-tendrils],
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [causes fruit rot]
fruit fruit may house hibernating larva Ametastegia (Ametastegia) glabrata - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952
fruit fruit may house hibernating prepupa? Ametastegia (Ametastegia) glabrata - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952
leaf (blackened, fallen) blackened, fallen leaf is decayed by amphigenous, immersed pseudothecium Venturia inaequalis - Apple Scab Fungus (Pseudosphaeriales: Venturiaceae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
leaf (live) live leaf is galled by hypophyllous aecium Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae - American Apple Rust (Pucciniales: Pucciniaceae) Foreign Major Laundon, G., 1977
leaf (live) live leaf is galled by epiphyllouson slightly thickened brown spots pycnium Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae - American Apple Rust (Pucciniales: Pucciniaceae) Foreign Laundon, G., 1977 [on slightly thickened brown spots]
leaf (live) live leaf may be infected and damaged by cleistothecium Podosphaera leucotricha - Apple Powdery Mildew (Erysiphales: Erysiphaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
leaf (live) live leaf may be infected and damaged by conidial anamorph Podosphaera leucotricha - Apple Powdery Mildew (Erysiphales: Erysiphaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
leaf (live) live leaf may be infected and damaged by colony of Spilocaea dematiaceous anamorph Venturia inaequalis - Apple Scab Fungus (Pseudosphaeriales: Venturiaceae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [causes more or less rounded greenish-brown blotches; centres become blackened, then grey and necrotic and the leaf may become blistered.],
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
leaf (live) live leaf is spotted by epiphyllous, scattered, sometimes grouped, immersed pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph Phyllosticta briardii - a coelomcyete (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae) UK/Ireland Grove, W.B., 1935 [causes very variable, brown or subochraceous spots with concolorous or darker, even purple, margins.]
leaf (live) live leaf is spotted by epiphyllous, immersed pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph Mycosphaerella pomi - an ascomycete (Capnodiales: Mycosphaerellaceae) UK/Ireland Grove, W.B., 1935,
Dennis, R.W.G. & Wakefield, E.M., 1946 [causes roundish, whitish, dead spots, 2-6mm diam., with narrow dark brown borders]
leaf (live) live leaf is spotted by pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph Phoma prunicola - Apple and Pear Leaf Spot (Pleosporales) Morgan-Jones, G., 1967
leaf (live/dead) live/dead leaf is spotted by epiphyllous, immersed pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph Phoma pomorum - a coelomycete (Pleosporales) UK/Ireland Grove, W.B., 1935 [causes roundish or sinuous spots, confluent to 6-7mm, whitish above, hardly discoloured below.],
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995,
Dennis, R.W.G. & Wakefield, E.M., 1946 [causes roundish, whitish, dead spots, 2-6mm diam., with narrow dark brown borders]
leaf leaf is galled by Eriophyes malinus - a gall mite (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae) Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
leaf leaf is galled by larva Dasineura mali - a gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
petal (live) live petal is foodplant of adult Byturus tomentosus - Raspberry Beetle (Coleoptera: Byturidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
pollen (live) live pollen is foodplant of adult Byturus tomentosus - Raspberry Beetle (Coleoptera: Byturidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
pollen? pollen? is foodplant of adult Bruchus pisorum - Pea Beetle, Spanish Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Cox, M.L., 2007
root (dead) dead root is decayed by fruitbody Ganoderma lucidum - Lacquered Bracket (Polyporales: Ganodermataceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [weakly parasitic or saprobic]
root (live) live root is parasitised by fruitbody Ganoderma lucidum - Lacquered Bracket (Polyporales: Ganodermataceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [weakly parasitic or saprobic]
rootstock (dead) dead rootstock is decayed by subepidermal acervulus of Truncatella coelomycetous anamorph Truncatella angustata - a coelomycete (Xylariales: Amphisphaeriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
sap run sap run is decayed by larva Ferdinandea - a genus of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) Rotheray, G.E., 1993
shoot (decaying) decaying shoot may contain larva Involvulus caeruleus - Apple Twig Cutter, Twig Cutting Weevil, Twig-cutting Weevil (Coleoptera: Rhynchitidae) Morris, M.G., 1990,
Bullock, J.A., 1992
shoot (live) live shoot may be infected and damaged by colony of Spilocaea dematiaceous anamorph Venturia inaequalis - Apple Scab Fungus (Pseudosphaeriales: Venturiaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
stamen (live) live stamen is foodplant of adult Byturus tomentosus - Raspberry Beetle (Coleoptera: Byturidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
stem (live) live stem is galled by aecium Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae - American Apple Rust (Pucciniales: Pucciniaceae) Foreign Laundon, G., 1977
stem (woody) (live) live stem (woody) is decayed by densely encrusting Lepidosaphes ulmi - Mussel Scale (Hemiptera: Coccidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
stump (dead, often rotten) dead, often rotten stump is decayed by perithecium Nectria peziza - a pyrenomycete (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
stump (dead) dead stump is decayed by fruitbody Athelia arachnoidea - a resupinate fungus (Polyporales: Atheliaceae) UK/Ireland Moore, W.C., 1959
stump (dead) dead stump is decayed by fruitbody Ganoderma lucidum - Lacquered Bracket (Polyporales: Ganodermataceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [weakly parasitic or saprobic]
stump (large) (dead) dead stump (large) is decayed by fruitbody Volvariella bombycina - Silky Rosegill (Agaricales: Pluteaceae) Rare Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
stump (live) live stump is parasitised by fruitbody Ganoderma lucidum - Lacquered Bracket (Polyporales: Ganodermataceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [weakly parasitic or saprobic]
stump (old) old stump is decayed by erect stroma Xylaria hypoxylon - Candle-snuff, Candlesnuff Fungus, Stag's-horn Fungus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
stump (relatively freshly cut, white rotted) relatively freshly cut, white rotted stump is decayed by fruitbody Pholiota squarrosa - Shaggy Scalycap (Agaricales: Strophariaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [parasitic then saprobic]
trunk (dead, hollow) dead, hollow trunk is decayed by fruitbody Sarcodontia crocea - Orchard Tooth (Polyporales: Meruliaceae) UK/Ireland Restricted Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [fruits in openings. Parasitic then saprobic]
trunk (dead) dead trunk is decayed by fruitbody Inonotus hispidus - Shaggy Bracket (Hymenochaetales: Hymenochaetaceae) Major Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
trunk (dead) dead trunk is decayed by fruitbody Ganoderma applanatum - Artist's Bracket (Polyporales: Ganodermataceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [parasitic then saprobic]
trunk (esp. base) (dead, white rotted) dead, white rotted trunk (esp. base) is decayed by fruitbody Pholiota squarrosa - Shaggy Scalycap (Agaricales: Strophariaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [parasitic then saprobic]
trunk (esp. base) (live) live trunk (esp. base) is parasitised by fruitbody Pholiota squarrosa - Shaggy Scalycap (Agaricales: Strophariaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [parasitic then saprobic]
trunk (large, dead, standing) large, dead, standing trunk is decayed by fruitbody Aurantiporus fissilis - Greasy Bracket (Polyporales: Polyporaceae) UK/Ireland Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
trunk (large) (dead, fallen, decayed) dead, fallen, decayed trunk (large) is decayed by fruitbody Postia tephroleuca - Greying Bracket, Greyling Bracket (Polyporales: Fomitopsidaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
trunk (large) (dead, standing) dead, standing trunk (large) is decayed by fruitbody Volvariella bombycina - Silky Rosegill (Agaricales: Pluteaceae) Rare Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
trunk (large) (fallen) fallen trunk (large) is decayed by fruitbody Volvariella bombycina - Silky Rosegill (Agaricales: Pluteaceae) Rare Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
trunk (large) (live, standing) live, standing trunk (large) is decayed by fruitbody Volvariella bombycina - Silky Rosegill (Agaricales: Pluteaceae) Rare Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [living on heartwood, fruiting through knothole or branch scar]
trunk (live, hollow) live, hollow trunk is parasitised by fruitbody Sarcodontia crocea - Orchard Tooth (Polyporales: Meruliaceae) UK/Ireland Restricted Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [fruits in openings. Parasitic then saprobic]
trunk (live, standing) live, standing trunk is decayed by fruitbody Pleurotus dryinus - Veiled Oyster (Agaricales: Pleurotaceae) Major Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [often in knotholes or branch scars],
Bioimages - the Virtual Field Guide: http://www.bioimages.org.uk
trunk (live) live trunk is galled by fruitbody Inonotus obliquus - a bracket fungus (Hymenochaetales: Hymenochaetaceae) Rare Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
trunk (live) live trunk is parasitised by fruitbody Inonotus hispidus - Shaggy Bracket (Hymenochaetales: Hymenochaetaceae) Major Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [a serious cause of wound-associated stem rot],
Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
trunk (live) live trunk is parasitised by fruitbody Phellinus igniarius - Willow Bracket, Willow Heart Rot (Causative Orgnaism) (Hymenochaetales: Hymenochaetaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
trunk (live) live trunk is parasitised by fruitbody Ganoderma applanatum - Artist's Bracket (Polyporales: Ganodermataceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [parasitic then saprobic]
trunk (live) live trunk is associate of fruitbody Perenniporia ochroleuca - a bracket fungus (Polyporales: Polyporaceae) UK/Ireland Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
twig (1-2 years old) twig (1-2 years old) is galled by egg Blepharidopterus angulatus - Black-kneed Apple Capsid (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
twig (cambium) twig (cambium) may contain larva Phytobia carbonaria - a leaf-mining fly (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Spencer, K.A., 1972
twig (dead, fallen) dead, fallen twig is decayed by fruitbody Phaeomarasmius rimulincola - a toadstool (Agaricales: Inocybaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
twig (dead) dead twig may contain larva Pogonocherus hispidulus - Greater Thorn-tipped Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Bullock, J.A., 1992
twig (dead) dead twig may contain larva Pogonocherus hispidus - Lesser Thorn-tipped Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Major Bullock, J.A., 1992
twig (dead) dead twig is decayed by densely clustered, immersed then breaking through pycnidium of Sclerophoma coelomycetous anamorph Sclerophoma mali - a coelomycete UK/Ireland Grove, W.B., 1935
twig (dead) dead twig is decayed by hysterothecium Gloniopsis praelonga - an ascomycete (Hysteriales: Hysteriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
twig (dead) dead twig is decayed by erumpent through bark, often in large clusters apothecium Tympanis conspersa - a discomycete (Helotiales: Helotiaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
twig (dead) dead twig is decayed by immersed, becoming erumpeny conidioma of Strasseria coelomycetous anamorph Strasseria geniculata - a coelomycete UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
twig (live) live twig may be infected and damaged by colony Venturia inaequalis - Apple Scab Fungus (Pseudosphaeriales: Venturiaceae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [causes blistered swellings which burst in Spring to produce green-brown pustules],
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
twig (thin) (live) live twig (thin) may be infected and damaged by cleistothecium Podosphaera leucotricha - Apple Powdery Mildew (Erysiphales: Erysiphaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
twig (thin) (live) live twig (thin) may be infected and damaged by conidial anamorph Podosphaera leucotricha - Apple Powdery Mildew (Erysiphales: Erysiphaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
twig twig is decayed by immersed, grouped in circles perithecium Valsa ambiens - a valsoid pyrenomycete (Diaporthales: Valsaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [extending uniformly along the whole length of twigs and branches]
twig twig is decayed by subgregarious to densely scattered, covered then erumpent, blackish grey with paler roundish flat disc stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph Valsa ambiens - a valsoid pyrenomycete (Diaporthales: Valsaceae) UK/Ireland Grove, W.B., 1935,
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [extending uniformly along the whole length of twigs and branches]
wood (dead or rotten) dead or rotten wood may contain larva Sinodendron cylindricum - Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) Jessop, L., 1986,
Bullock, J.A., 1992
wood (dead, decayed) dead, decayed wood is decayed by fruitbody Auricularia mesenterica - Tripe Fungus (Auriculariales: Auriculariaceae) UK/Ireland Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
wood (dead, decayed) dead, decayed wood is decayed by fruitbody Leucogyrophana mollusca - a resupinate bolete (Boletales: Hygrophoropsidaceae) Rare Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
wood (dead, fallen, decayed) dead, fallen, decayed wood is decayed by fruitbody Postia tephroleuca - Greying Bracket, Greyling Bracket (Polyporales: Fomitopsidaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
wood (dead) dead wood is decayed by subepidermal acervulus of Truncatella coelomycetous anamorph Truncatella angustata - a coelomycete (Xylariales: Amphisphaeriaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
wood (dead) dead wood is decayed by fruitbody Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes - Velvet Shank, Winter Fungus (Agaricales: Physalacriaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [saprobic or weakly parasitic]
wood (dead) dead wood is decayed by fruitbody Oxyporus populinus - Poplar Bracket (Hymenochaetales: Schizoporaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
wood (dead) dead wood may house imago Sinodendron cylindricum - Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) Jessop, L., 1986
wood (decayed) decayed wood is decayed by fruitbody Gymnopilus junonius - Spectacular Rustgill (Agaricales: Strophariaceae) Major Pegler, D.N. & Legon, N.W., 2000
wood (decayed) decayed wood is decayed by fruitbody Bjerkandera fumosa - Big Smoky Bracket (Polyporales: Meruliaceae) UK/Ireland Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
wood (decaying) decaying wood may contain larva Prionychus ater - a darkling beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Bullock, J.A., 1992
wood (live) live wood is parasitised by fruitbody Oxyporus populinus - Poplar Bracket (Hymenochaetales: Schizoporaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [weakly parasitic]
wood (living) living wood is parasitised by fruitbody Spongipellis spumeus - a mazegill fungus (Polyporales: Polyporaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [weakly parasitic then saprobic]
wood (moribund) moribund wood is parasitised by fruitbody Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes - Velvet Shank, Winter Fungus (Agaricales: Physalacriaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [saprobic or weakly parasitic]
wood (sawdust-packed tunnel in dead) sawdust-packed tunnel in dead wood may house ovum Sinodendron cylindricum - Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) Jessop, L., 1986
wood (usually decorticate) usually decorticate wood is decayed by short-stalked apothecium Lachnum cerinum - a discomycete (Helotiales: Hyaloscyphaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
wood wood may contain larva Obrium cantharinum - a longhorn beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Bullock, J.A., 1992
wood wood is decayed by colony of Stachybotrys dematiaceous anamorph Melanopsamma pomiformis - a pyrenomycete (Hypocreales: Niessliaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
wood wood is decayed by superficial, thickly clustered perithecium Melanopsamma pomiformis - a pyrenomycete (Hypocreales: Niessliaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
wood wood is decayed by immersed, often loosely grouped perithecium Diaporthe eres - a pyrenomycete (Diaporthales: Diaporthaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 [immersed in wood with necks emerging through the bark]
wood wood is decayed by fruitbody Spongipellis spumeus - a mazegill fungus (Polyporales: Polyporaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [weakly parasitic then saprobic]

Malus may be associated with more taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

PLANTAE
(plants)
TRACHEOPHYTA
(vascular plants)
MAGNOLIOPSIDA
(flowering plants)
EU-DICOTS
(dicotyledonous flowering plants)
ROSACEAE
(roses and fruit trees)
Broadleaved trees Trees with bark of middle pH (via Malus) Trees (via Trees with bark of middle pH) Broadleaved trees and shrubs Trees and shrubs Trees, shrubs, woody and climbing plants (via Broadleaved trees) Broadleaved trees, shrubs and climbers (via Broadleaved trees and shrubs)

References

Benson, R.B., 1952 Hymenoptera: 2. Symphyta. Section (b)
Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants
Bullock, J.A., 1992 Host Plants of British Beetles: A List of Recorded Associations
Cox, M.L., 2007 Atlas of the Seed and Leaf Beetles of Britain and Ireland
Dennis, R.W.G. & Wakefield, E.M., 1946 New or interesting British fungi
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995 Fungi of the South East England
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 Microfungi on Land Plants: An Identification Handbook
Grove, W.B., 1935 British Stem- and Leaf- Fungi: Coelomycetes Vol. I … Sphaeropsidales with hyaline conidia
Jessop, L., 1986 Dung Beetles and Chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)
Laundon, G., 1977 Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae Schwein.
Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 Checklist of the British and Irish Basidiomycota
MacLeod, A. & Matthews, L., 2005 CSL Pest Risk Analysis for Eulecanium excrescens
Moore, W.C., 1959 British Parasitic Fungi
Morgan-Jones, G., 1967 Phoma prunicola (Opiz) Wollenw. & Hochapf.
Morris, I. & Roberts, P., 1997 British Vuilleminia species
Morris, M.G., 1990 Orthocerous Weevils
Morris, M.G., 1997 Broad-Nosed Weevils (Entiminae)
Morris, M.G., 2002 True Weevils (Part I): Family Curculionidae, subfamilies Raymondionyminae to Smicronychinae
Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976 Thysanoptera
Nau, B.S., 1984 Notes on the Recording and Identification of Psallus
Pegler, D.N. & Legon, N.W., 2000 Profiles of Fungi No. 112: Gymnopilus junonius (Fr.) P. D. Orton
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi
Rotheray, G.E., 1993 Colour Guide to Hoverfly Larvae (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Britain and Europe
Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles
Spencer, K.A., 1972 Diptera: Agromyzidae
Bioimages - the Virtual Field Guide: http://www.bioimages.org.uk Bioimages - the Virtual Field Guide
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986 Provisional Keys to British Plant Galls
Yao, Y.-J. & Spooner, B.M., 1996 Notes on British species of Tympanis (Leotiales) with T. prunicola new to Britain
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