BioInfo (UK)

PLANTAE Haeckel, 1866 (plants)

BioImages BioImages ( has 26112 images of PLANTAE (plants)

NBN NBN ( has the UK distribution map of PLANTAE (plants)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Kingdom)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs
BILIPHYTA (red seaweeds) Subkingdom 19 subtaxa 51 17
CYCADOPHYTA (cycads) Phylum 1 subtaxon    
CYCADOPSIDA (cycads) Class 1 subtaxon    
CYCADALES (cycads) Order 1 subtaxon   4
GNETOPHYTA (joint pines) Phylum 1 subtaxon    
GNETOPSIDA (joint pines) Class 1 subtaxon    
Ephedra (joint pines) Genus     2
TRACHEOPHYTA (vascular plants) Phylum 2877 subtaxa 1379 43051
VIRIDIPLANTAE (lower green plants) Subkingdom 286 subtaxa 294 1112
(Macrophytes) (multi-cellular plants) Informal 162 subtaxa 202 882

Suggested Literature

Identification Works


Petraco, N. & Kubic, T., 2003 Color Atlas and Manual of Microscopy for Criminalists, Chemists, and Conservators

General Works

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew - RBG(K): Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew - RBG(K)
Leake, J.R., 2005 Plants parasitic on fungi: unearthing the fungi in myco-heterotrophs and debunking the "saprophytic" plant myth


McNeill, J.; Barrie, F. R.; Buck, W. R. et al., eds., 2012 International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN)


Walker, K. & Leach, S., 2011 Numbers of location and population sizes of some 'Critically Endangered' or 'Endangered' Red List Taxa


anon., 2007 Fungal Endophytes


Coyle, H.M., 2004 Forensic Botany: Principles and Applications to Criminal Casework


Herbaria United: Herbaria United


Australian Systematic Botany Journal
Hoppea, Denkschriften der Regensburgischen Botanischen Gesellschaft (Hoppea, Denkschr. Regensb. Bot. Ges.) Journal
Journal of Botany Journal
New Phytologist Journal
Nordic Journal of Botany Journal
Nova Hedwigia Journal
Phytokeys Journal
Plant Ecology Journal
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology Journal
Schlechtendalia Journal
Thunbergia Journal
Journal of Ecology (J. Ecology) Journal
Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh Journal
Kew Bulletin Journal
Botanical Journal of Scotland Journal
Polish Botanical Journal Journal
Lankestriana Journal

Latin names

Stearn, W.T., 1973 Botanical Latin: History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary


Rätsch, A., 2005 The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants. Ethnopharmacology and its Applications
Botanical Dermatology Database (BoDD): (Allergens) Botanical Dermatology Database (BoDD)


Coupin, J. & D., 1908 Atlas de Botanique Microscopique
Marson, J.E., 1983 Practical Microscopy

Nature conservation

Rich, T., 2003 Global strategy for plant conservation: targets to be achieved by 2010

Plant pathology

DEFRA Plant Health - Pests and Diseases: DEFRA Plant Health - Pests and Diseases

Regional studies

Crawley, M., 2005 The Flora of Berkshire

UK Legislation

DEFRA: The Regulation and Control of the Release of Non-native Animals and Plants into the Wild in Great Britain: (UK Law on introductions) DEFRA: The Regulation and Control of the Release of Non-native Animals and Plants into the Wild in Great Britain

PLANTAE may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

Associated with PLANTAE:

(dead, composted) dead, composted is decayed by sporangiophore Lichtheimia corymbifera - a pin mould (Mucorales: Lichtheimiaceae) Major Lunn, J.A., 1977

Further Information

Lab. techniques Nail Varnish peels for surface microsculpture

Nail varnish peels provide a method of studying the surface structure of glabrous or sparsely haired leaves, often without damaging the plant. The method can also be applied to stems, petals, sepals, bud or cone scales or bark etc where these are large enough, although thin petals tend to shrivel. It could perhaps also be used for cut surfaces of wood, so long as these are first shaved smooth with a sharp knife.

Thick leaves like Ivy appear to suffer no ill effects, but thinner leaves like Wood Sorrel and most petals are killed by the nail varnish solvents.

Equipment: clear nail varnish, fine forceps, microscope slides, compound microscope.

Paint a thin patch of transparent nail varnish onto the surface to be studied. Leave to dry and peel off. Don't be tempted to apply a second coat as this just pevents it lying flat on the slide. Place on a microscope slide (shiny side down) and run a drop of water under the film to hold it flat against the slide. Examine under the microscope at magnification of x40 to x400. The shapes of epidermal cells, stomata and any surface sculpture are clearly visible.

The patch should be about 10mm diam, but, with practice, smaller patches can be used if the plant part is small. For standardisation, leaf patches should be applied at a point between half and two-thirds of the distance from the end of the petiole to the leaf apex. They should start at the midrib and cover part of the adjacent lamina. But try patches elsewhere to compare morphology. Use a mature leaf, but again, compare younger and senescent leaves.

The upper and undersides of leaves are often different and should both be sampled. Be careful to distinguish the two peels. (If in doubt, the lower surface often has more stomata.)

Ideally the varnish should be applied to living material in the field. The peels should be placed in separate labelled tubes or packets. Alternatively, wait until the varnish is at least half-dry then detach the leaf and take it home. Drying is quite quick in warm weather, but at lower temperatures it may be necessary to leave the film for several hours or over night. Sometimes the peel develops a "snake-skin" appearance due to the formation of tiny pits on the outer surface as it dries. This may be due to condensation but has not been investigated. Take care to ignore such artefacts when interpreting films.

When studying picked plant material, the varnish should be applied before wilting to avoid shrinkage or changes of shape due to loss of turgor.

Leaf microstructure is often asymmetrical. Try to keep track of the orientation of the peel, although this can sometimes be inferred from the venation.

Thin peels adhere well to the slide (van der Waals forces) and are reasonably tough. Each peel can be anchored with a small piece of exhibition tape for additional security. For long term storage slides should be labelled and need little more than wrapping in aluminium foil for protection, with the name repeated on the foil.


Lunn, J.A., 1977 Absidia corymbifera
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