BioInfo (UK)

BRYOPHYTA (mosses and Liverworts)

BioImages BioImages ( has 1730 images of BRYOPHYTA (mosses and Liverworts)

NBN NBN ( has the UK distribution map of BRYOPHYTA (mosses and Liverworts)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Phylum)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Atherton, I., Bosanquet, S. & Lawley, M. (eds), 2010 Mosses and Liverworts of Britain and Ireland - a field guide
Casa, C., Brugues, M., Cros, R.M. & Sergio, C., 2006 Handbook of Mosses of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands
Edwards, S., 2006 Mosses and Liverworts of Town and Garden: identification of some commoner species with a hand-lens
Frey, W. Frahm, J.-P., Fischer, E. & Lobin, W., 2006 The Liverworts, Mosses and Ferns of Europe
Jahns, H.M., 1980 Ferns, Mossses and Lichens of Britain, Northern & Central Europe
Jewell, A.L., 1955 The Observer's Book of Mosses and Liverworts
OPAL The OPAL guide to epiphytic mosses in orchards in the East of England
Phillips, R., 1980 Grasses, Ferns, Mosses and Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland
Porley, R., 2008 (Arable land species) Arable Bryophytes: Field Guide: The Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts of Cultivated Land in Britain and Ireland
Watson, E.V., 1955 British Mosses and Liverworts (Ed 1)
Watson, E.V., 1968 British Mosses and Liverworts (Ed 2)
Watson, E.V., 1981 British Mosses and Liverworts (Ed 3)
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

General Works

IBRIS - International Bryophyte Research Information Service: IBRIS - International Bryophyte Research Information Service
The Plant List: The Plant List
Hill, M.O., Preston, C.D., Bosanquet, S.D.S. & Roy, D.B., 2007 BRYOATT: Attributes of British and Irish Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts
Porley, R. & Hodgetts, N., 2005 Mosses and Liverworts
Preston, C.D., Blackstock, T.H., Bosanquet, S.D.S., Godfrey, M.F., Hill, M.O., Holyoak, D.T. & Rothero, G.P., 2012 Bryophyte Recording Handbook
Watson, E.V., 1967 The Structure and Life of Bryophytes


Field Bryology (FB) Journal
Journal of Bryology Journal
The Bryologist Journal

Moss gardening

Fletcher, M., 2006 Moss Grower's Handbook

Nature conservation

Hodgetts, N.G., 1996 Conservation of Lower Plants in Woodland

Regional studies

Proctor, M.C.F., 1960 Mosses and Liverworts of the Malham District


British Bryological Society (BBS) British Bryological Society

BRYOPHYTA may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)
(lower green plants)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

Associated with BRYOPHYTA:

is associate of fruitbody Loreleia postii - a toadstool (Hymenochaetales) Spooner, B.M., 1987 [often on burnt ground]
gametophyte gametophyte is associate of fruitbody Dictyonema coppinsii - a lichenised bracket fungus UK/Ireland Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005

Bryophyta may be associated with more taxa listed at higher taxonomic level


Further Information

Photomicrography hints Photographing spores can be difficult, especially under oil immersion when they move continuously.

Various thickening agents can be used. Glycerine Jelly tends to make the spores collapse. Methyl Cellulose (aka wallpaper paste) is often used for similar purposes. Xantham Gum (on the "Free From" shelf at the supermarket), Alginate or Gelatine could also be tried.

Both methyl cellulose and xanthan gum contain structures that show up under contrast enhancement techniques (eg Phase Contrast, Differential Interference Contrast): bamboo ropes for methyl cellulose and minute granules for xanthan gum. (Either of these may vary with the source of the material).

Xanthan Gum can be prepared by adding the powder to water at about 1:5. Stir until all the white trapped air has disappeared. It keeps for at least a few weeks, but seal to keep out dust and prevent evaporation. To use touch the surface with a glass rod (or finger tip!) and touch onto the slide. As the coverslip is pressed down it will form a thin film without too many air bubbles.


Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 Checklist of the British and Irish Basidiomycota
Spooner, B.M., 1987 Profiles of Fungi No. 2: Gerronema postii
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