BioInfo (UK)

Hygrocybe (Fr.) P. Kumm. (waxcaps, waxcap mushrooms)

BioImages BioImages ( has 1115 images of Hygrocybe (waxcaps, waxcap mushrooms)

NBN NBN ( has the UK distribution map of Hygrocybe (waxcaps, waxcap mushrooms)

FRDBI FRDBI ( has the UK and Ireland records of Hygrocybe (waxcaps, waxcap mushrooms)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Genus)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Arnolds, E., 1990 Tribus Hygrocybeae (K├╝hner) Bas & Arnolds in FAN 2
Bas, C., Kuper, T.W., Noordeloos, M.E. & Vellinga, E.C., 1990 Flora Agaricina Neerlandica 2
Boertmann, D., 1995 The Genus Hygrocybe (1st ed)
Boertmann, D., 2010 The Genus Hygrocybe (2nd ed)
Bon, M., 1990 Hygrophoraceae
Candusso, M., 1994 Hygrophorus
Edwards, B., in prep. Field key to Dorset waxcaps
Waxcap Website: Waxcap Website
Orton, P.D., 1960 New Checklist of British Agarics and Boleti - Part III: Notes on genera and species in the list
Orton, P.D., 1980 Notes on British Agarics: VII

Waxcap Grasslands

Henrici, A., 1996 Waxcap-grassland Fungi

General Works

Evans, S., 2001 (Waxcap Grasslands) Conservation Corner (Jan 2001)
Griffith, G.W., 2004 The use of Stable Isotopes in Fungal Ecology


Holden, L., 2013 Can higher plant surveys be used to pick out important waxcap grassland sites in conservation assessment projects?


Griffith, G.W, Graham, A., Woods, R.G., Easton, G.L. & Halbwachs, H., 2014 Effect of biocides on the fruiting of waxcap fungi
Halbwachs, H., Dentinger, B.T.M., Detheridge, A.P., Karasch, P. & Griffith, G.W., 2013 Hyphae of waxcap fungi colonise plant roots

Waxcap Grasslands

Boniface, T., 2001 Fungi in an Essex Churchyard
Evans, S., 2000 Cross-off sheets for easy recording of Fungi - 2 Hygrocybe - Field Characters
Evans, S., 2003 British Waxcap-grassland cross-off list
Evans, S., 2003 (latest on wax-cap grasslands) Conservation Corner (April 2003)
Evans, S., 2003 (Government plans to reduce upland grazing could adversely affect the waxcap grassland assemblage) Conservation Corner (Jan 2003)
Evans, S., 2003 (Publication of "Grassland Gems: managing lawns and pastures for fungi") Conservation Corner (Oct 2003)
Evans, S., 2004 Waxcap-grasslands - an assessment of English sites
Fortey, R., 2000 Old Churchyards as fungal conservation areas
Griffith, G.W. Bratton, J.H. & Easton, G., 2004 Charismatic megafungi: the conservation of waxcap grasslands
Holden, L., 2000 Conservation Corner (July 2000): Scottish Waxcap Survey
McHugh, R., Mitchel, D., Wright, M. & Anderson, R., 2001 Fungi of Irish Grasslands and their value for Nature Conservation
Newton, A.C., Davy, L.M., Holden, E., Silverside, A., Watling, R. & Ward, S.D., 2003 Status, distribution and definition of mycologically important grasslands in Scotland
Russell, P., 2005 Grassland Fungi and the Management History of St. Dunstan's Farm

Hygrocybe may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)
(true fungi)
(spore droppers)
(a class of fungi)
(mushrooms and toadstools)
Gasteromycetes (via Hygrophoraceae) Macromycetes (via Agaricales) Fungi s.l. (via Fungi)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

Hygrocybe is associated with:

fruitbody Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus - Churchyard Moss, Springy Turf-moss (Hypnales: Hylocomiaceae) fruitbody is associated with colony UK/Ireland

There may be more taxa associated with Hygrocybe listed at higher taxonomic level

(true fungi)

Associated with Hygrocybe:

Hygrocybe may be associated with taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

(true fungi)
(mushrooms and toadstools)
Macromycetes (via Agaricales) Fungi s.l. (via Fungi)

Further Information

Notes (MWS) In Europe, the waxcaps are principally toadstools of unimproved grassland although in North America they are mainly found woodland. Many of our species are large and strikingly bright coloured, although the colour can be washed out by rain or bleached by sunlight.

Characterised by distant thick and waxy gills (hence "waxcap") and microscopically by long slender basidia.
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