BioInfo (UK)

INSECTA (true insects)

BioImages BioImages (www.bioimages.org.uk) has 27641 images of INSECTA (true insects)

NBN NBN (data.nbn.org.uk) has the UK distribution map of INSECTA (true insects)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Class)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

British Insects discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/british_insects/join British Insects discussion group
Insects & Spiders from Finland
: http://www.kolumbus.fi/hannu.j.tanner/coleoptera/
Insects & Spiders from Finland
Brock, P.D., 2014 A Comprehensive Guide to Insects of Britain and Ireland
Chinery, M., 2005 Complete British Insects
Photos of Insects: http://www.gwydir.demon.co.uk/insects/index.htm Photos of Insects
Imms, A.D., 1957 General Textbook of Entomology
Linssen, E.F. & Newman, L.H., 1964 The Observer's Book of Insects
Lepidoptera and some other life forms: http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/intro.html Lepidoptera and some other life forms

Freshwater

Macan, T.T., 1959 (esp. larvae) A Guide to Freshwater Invertebrates

Keys to orders

A quick key to the adults of the major Orders of Insects: http://www.wildlifebcnp.org/ecology-resources.htm A quick key to the adults of the major Orders of Insects

Larvae

Freshwater
Macan, T.T., 1959 A Guide to Freshwater Invertebrates

Marine

Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (eds), 1990 The Marine Fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (eds), 1996 (littoral and sublittoral fauna) Handbook of the Marine Fauna of North-West Europe

Plant galls

Houard, C., 1908 Les zoocécidies des plantes d'Europe et du bassin de la Méditerranée: Description des galles

General Works

AES discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/aes/join AES discussion group
Bug Club discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/bugclub/join Bug Club discussion group
Les Insectes: http://aramel.free.fr/INSECTES15.shtml Les Insectes
Beynon, S.A., Peck, M., Mann, D.J. & Lewis, O.T., 2012 Consequences of alternative and conventional endoparasite control in cattle for dung-associated invertebrates and ecosystem functioning
Entomoland: http://detpbourgeois.free.fr Entomoland
Cheng, L., 1976 Marine Insects
Chinery, M., 1973 A Field Guide to the Insects of Britain and Northern Europe
Micropics: http://micropics.org.uk/index.htm Micropics
A glossary of Surface Sculpturing: http://antbase.org/ants/publications/harris1979.html (Microsculpture guide) A glossary of Surface Sculpturing
Holt, V.M. with introduction by Mound, L., 1992 Why not eat insects?
Klowden, M.J., 2013 Physiological Systems in Insects
Les Insectes: Petit cours illustré d'entomologie: http://aramel.free.fr Les Insectes: Petit cours illustré d'entomologie
The Wonderful World of Insects: http://www.earthlife.net/insects/ The Wonderful World of Insects
Iowa State Entomology Index of Internet Resources: http://www.ent.iastate.edu/list/ Iowa State Entomology Index of Internet Resources

Acid mires

Boyce, D., 2004 A review of the invertebrate assemblages of acid mires

Food plants

Jefferson, R., 2004 Insects and fleshy fruits
Smith, R.M. & Roy, D.B., 2008 Revealing the foundations of biodiversity
Database of British Insects and Their Foodplants (DBIF): http://www.brc.ac.uk/dbif Database of British Insects and Their Foodplants (DBIF)

Forensics

Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L., 2000 Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations

Freshwater

Regional
Olsen, K.M., 2008 Noteworthy records of freshwater insects in Norway

Journals

Bolletino della Societa Entomologica Italiana Journal
British Wildlife Journal
Bulletin of Entomological Research Journal
Bulletin of Insectology Journal
Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology (Bull.br.Mus.nat.Hist.Entomol.) Journal
Ecological Entomology Journal
Entomol. Gener. Journal
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Journal
Entomologica Fennica Journal
Entomologica Scandinavica (Ent. scand.) Journal
Entomologie Journal
Entomologist Journal
Entomologist's Gazette (Ent. Gazette) Journal
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine (EMM) Journal
Entomologist's Record and journal of variation Journal
Entomophaga Journal
European Journal of Entomology Journal
Insect Conservation and Diversity Journal
Invertebrate Rearing Journal
Monographien zur Angewandten Entomologie Journal
Monographien zur Angewandten Entomologie Journal
Physiological Entomology Journal
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London Journal
Systematic Entomology Journal
Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (Trans. ent. Soc. Lond.) Journal
Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute (Mem. Amer. Ent. Inst.) Journal
Proceedings and Transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society (Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc.) Journal
Tijdschrift voor Entomologie Journal
Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift (Norsk. Ent. Tidskr.) Journal
Norwegian Journal of Entomology (NJE) Journal
Norwegian Journal of Entomology (old series) Journal
Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (PROC. R. ENT. SOC. LOND. (A)) Journal
Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London (Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond.) Journal
Transactions of the Society for British Entomology Journal
Proceedings and Transactions of the South London Entomological and Natural History Society Journal
Entomologische Abhandlungen Journal
Entomological Science Journal
Plant pathology
Plant Pathology Online Journal
Plant Protection News Journal
New Disease Reports Journal
PRAs for consultation on pest risk management Journal
Regional
Boletin de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia (Bol. Asoc. Esp. Entomol.) Journal
Contributions of the American Entomological Institute Journal
Far Eastern Entomologist Journal
Opuscula Entomologica Journal
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington Journal
Russian Entomological Journal (Russian Entomol. J.) Journal
Annals of the Entomological Society of America (Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am.) Journal
Proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society (Proc. S.L.E. & N.H. Soc.) Journal

Lab techniques

Ethyl Acetate Wax: http://www.astro.helsinki.fi/~kahanpaa/wax/ Ethyl Acetate Wax

Microscopy

Microscope slide mounting media: results of informal survey: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/acarology/archive/summary.html Microscope slide mounting media: results of informal survey
Marson, J.E., 1983 Practical Microscopy

Nature conservation

Alexander, K.N.A., 2005 The invertebrate assemblage of some arable fields in West Cornwall: a mismatch between invertebrate and plant conservation prioritisation

Parasitology

Leatherdale, D., 1958 Host Catalogue of British Entomogenous Fungi
Leatherdale, D., 1962 Host Catalogue of British Entomogenous Fungi: first supplement
Leatherdale, D., 1966 Host Catalogue of British Entomogenous Fungi: second supplement
Leatherdale, D., 1970 The arthropod hosts of entomogenous fungi in Britain

Photography

Buffington, M. & Gates, M., 2008 Advanced Imaging Techniques II: Using a Compound Microscope for Photographing Point-Mount Specimens
Bugs in the Picture: http://www.bugsinthepicture.com Bugs in the Picture
How to Take MacroPhotographs of Insects: ftp://ftpext.usgs.gov/pub/er/md/laurel/Droege/How%20to%20Take%20MacroPhotographs%20of%20Insects%20BIML%20Lab2.pdf How to Take MacroPhotographs of Insects
Fisher, E., 2012 Dome Light Update

Plant pathology

Alford, D.V., 2011 Plant Pests

Societies

Amateur Entomologists' Society: http://www.amentsoc.org Amateur Entomologists' Society

Suppliers

Polybags Ltd: http://www.polybags.co.uk Polybags Ltd

Survey Methods

Disney, R.H.L. et al, 1982 Collecting methods and adequacy of attempted faunal surveys, with reference to Diptera

UK Legislation

DEFRA/CSL Importing Invertebrates

INSECTA may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
ANIMALIA
(animals)
EUMETAZOA
(metazoans)
ARTHROPODA
(arthropods)
HEXAPODA
(insects and other 6-legged organisms)
Invertebrates (via Arthropoda)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

INSECTA is associated with:

Epipactis palustris - Marsh Helleborine (Asparagales: Orchidaceae) pollinates or fertilises flower Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M., 1985
adult Serapias lingua - Greater Tongue Orchid, Tongue-orchid adult pollinates or fertilises flower Harrap, A. & S., 2009

Associated with INSECTA:

may attract synnematum of Polycephalomyces anamorph Polycephalomyces ramosus - an entomogenous fungus (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) Moss, M., Spooner, B. & Mitchell, D.W., 2007
is parasitised by larva Sarcophaga melanura - a flesh fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) van Emden, F.I.,, 1954
is endoparasitoid host of larva Ravinia pernix - a flesh fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) van Emden, F.I.,, 1954
may be infected by Conidiobolus coronatus - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) UK/Ireland Callaghan, A., 2004 [opportunistic pathogen]
may be infected by Conidiobolus osmodes - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) UK/Ireland Callaghan, A., 2004 [opportunistic pathogen]
may be infected by Conidiobolus thromboides - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) UK/Ireland Callaghan, A., 2004 [opportunistic pathogen]
may be infected by Aspergillus flavus - Stonebrood Disease (A causative organism) (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) Diseases of the honey bee: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diseases_of_the_honey_bee
may be infected by Aspergillus niger - Black Mould Of Onions, Garlic and Shallots - causative organism (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) Diseases of the honey bee: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diseases_of_the_honey_bee
may be infected by Fennellia flavipes - Stonebrood Disease (A causative organism) (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) Diseases of the honey bee: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diseases_of_the_honey_bee
may be infected by colony Beauveria bassiana - an anamorphic fungus (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae)
is predated by imago Tenthredinidae - a family of sawflies (Hymenoptera) Benson, R.B., 1952
is predated by Lyctocoris (Lyctocoris) campestris - The Debris Bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Major Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
is predated by adult Deraeocoris (Deraeocoris) olivaceus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small insects)]
is predated by nymph Deraeocoris (Deraeocoris) olivaceus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small insects)]
is predated by adult Deraeocoris (Deraeocoris) ruber - Red Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small insects)]
is predated by nymph Deraeocoris (Deraeocoris) ruber - Red Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small insects)]
is predated by nymph Deraeocoris (Knightocapsus) lutescens - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small insects)]
is predated by adult Deraeocoris (Knightocapsus) lutescens - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small insects)]
is predated by Blepharidopterus angulatus - Black-kneed Apple Capsid (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [small species]
is predated by Orthotylus (Orthotylus) marginalis - Dark Green Apple Capsid (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [small insects]
is predated by adult Campylomma verbasci - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small animals)]
is predated by nymph Campylomma verbasci - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small animals)]
is predated by adult Compsidolon (Coniortodes) salicellum - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small insects)]
is predated by adult Phylus (Phylus) coryli - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
is predated by adult Phylus (Phylus) melanocephalus - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small insects)]
is predated by adult Psallus (Apocremnus) betuleti - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
is predated by nymph Psallus (Apocremnus) betuleti - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
is predated by adult Psallus (Mesopsallus) ambiguus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small species)]
is predated by nymph Psallus (Mesopsallus) ambiguus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [(small species)]
is predated by leaf (sticky hairs) Drosera - sundews (Caryophyllales: Droseraceae) Stace, C., 1997
is predated by pitcher Sarraceniaceae - pitcher plants (Ericales) Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M., 1985,
Stace, C., 1997
is predated by leaf Pinguicula - butterworts (Lamiales: Lentibulariaceae) Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M., 1985 [sticky hairs on leaf trap small insects]
spreads Basidiobolus ranarum - a zygomycete (Basidiobolales: Basidiobolaceae) Weber, R.W.S. & Webster, J., 1998 [insects eaten by vertebate host]
adult adult is endoparasitised by larva Hymenolepis diminuta - Rat Tapeworm (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) Avery, R.A., 1974
adult adult may be infected by Furia americana - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982
adult adult is predated by nymph Eurydema (Eurydema) oleracea - Brassica Bug, Cabbage Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
body cavity, larva body cavity of larva is endoparasitised by cyst Haplometra cylindracea - a fluke (Plagiorchiida: Plagiorchiidae) Avery, R.A., 1974
egg egg is predated by adult Dryophilocoris (Dryophilocoris) flavoquadrimaculatus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
egg egg is predated by nymph Dryophilocoris (Dryophilocoris) flavoquadrimaculatus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
egg egg is predated by nymph Eurydema (Eurydema) oleracea - Brassica Bug, Cabbage Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
exuvia, larva (dead, shed, submerged) dead, shed, submerged exuvia of larva dead is eaten by Chytriomyces nodulatus - a chytrid (Chytridiales: Chytridiaceae) UK/Ireland Haskins, R.H., 1946
exuvia, larva (dead, shed) dead, shed exuvia of larva dead is eaten by Rhizoclosmatium globosum - a chytrid (Chytridiales: Chytridiaceae) UK/Ireland Canter, H.M., 1953
exuvia, larva (dead, shed) dead, shed exuvia of larva dead is eaten by Asterophlyctis sarcoptoides - a chytrid (chitin saprobe) (Chytridiales: Endochytriaceae) UK/Ireland Canter, H.M., 1953
exuvia, larva (dead, shed) dead, shed exuvia of larva dead is eaten by Siphonaria variabilis - a chytrid (Chytridiales) UK/Ireland Canter, H.M., 1953
larva (carrion inhabiting) carrion inhabiting larva is predated by Podops inuncta - European Turtlebug, Turtle Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) UK/Ireland Questionable Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [in carrion or dung]
larva (dung inhabiting) dung inhabiting larva is predated by Podops inuncta - European Turtlebug, Turtle Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) UK/Ireland Questionable Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [in carrion or dung]
larva larva is endoparasitised by larva Hymenolepis diminuta - Rat Tapeworm (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) Avery, R.A., 1974
larva larva is predated by nymph Eurydema (Eurydema) oleracea - Brassica Bug, Cabbage Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
larva larva is predated by bladder Utricularia australis - Bladderwort (Lamiales: Lentibulariaceae) UK/Ireland Darwin, C., 1875 [p405]

Insecta may be associated with more taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

ANIMALIA
(animals)
ARTHROPODA
(arthropods)
Invertebrates (via Arthropoda)

Further Information

Notes (MWS) Insects are characterised by having six legs. Of course there are exceptions: many larvae have no or additional legs (but these are stumpy and obviously different); some adults, especially parasitic forms, have reduced legs. Finally not everything with six legs is an insect: juvenile mites and copepods are both six-legged.

Insects have a chitin exoskeleton. Because this is impermeable to gases, they have a system of branching internal breathing tubes (trachaea) connecting to the outside through paired openings (spiracles) on each segment (generally). Because the exoskeleton is stiff, it is shed (ecdysis) regularly during growth; the number of moults is usually constant for a given species, and the stages between are called instars.

Insects are the most species-rich group of organisms on the planet.
Diagnostic features Almost all insects have six-legs, at least when adult.

Almost all organisms with six legs are insects - the exceptions are very tiny, although spiders and harvestmen can lose two legs, so care needs to be taken.

Any cold-blooded organism with wings (ie not bird or bat) is an insect.
Curation Hard-bodied insects are generally pinned (the exception being beetles which are usually carded, and very small species.) Either way they often need to be relaxed after killing, unless you catch them just right.

Soft-bodied species and larvae are best preserved specimen tubes in 90% alcohol. Use tubes with flat sealing caps ("alcohol tubes") rather than the 3-finned caps which aren't vapour-proof. To reduce evaporation, store the tubes in a sealed jar (jam jar or kilner jar) which itself contains a few cm of alcohol.
Lab. techniques RELAXING
Insects are best relaxed in a jar with a few drops of vinegar on a piece of kitchen towel in the bottom. Use a squat jar such as those sold containing savoury spreads. Small insects will relax overnight, larger or stiffer ones might require a couple of days. Beware that the acetic acid will turn copper or brass-headed pins green.

MICROSCOPE PREPS
Insects or insect parts can be softened in 10% KOH. This generally means heating in a water bath for 5 or 10 minutes (depending on size) or leaving overnight at room temperature.

This is the usual method of preparing microscope slides, eg for genitalia preps.

References

Diseases of the honey bee: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diseases_of_the_honey_bee Diseases of the honey bee
Avery, R.A., 1974 Identification of Animal Parasites
Benson, R.B., 1952 Hymenoptera: 2. Symphyta. Section (b)
Callaghan, A., 2004 Teaching Techniques for Mycology: 22. Disclosure of Conidiobolus and Basidiobolus from soils and leaf litters
Canter, H.M., 1953 Annotated list of British Aquatic Chytrids
Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M., 1985 Flora of the British Isles
Darwin, C., 1875 Insectivorous Plants
Harrap, A. & S., 2009 Orchids of Britain & Ireland: a field and site guide
Haskins, R.H., 1946 New Chytridiaceous fungi from Cambridge.
Moss, M., Spooner, B. & Mitchell, D.W., 2007 Two rare and interesting entomogenous fungi from south-east England
Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles
Stace, C., 1997 New Flora of the British Isles (Ed 2)
van Emden, F.I.,, 1954 Diptera: Cyclorrhapha Calyptrata (I) Sect (a) Tachinidae and Calliphoridae
Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 Key to the Species of Entomophthora sensu lato
Weber, R.W.S. & Webster, J., 1998 Teaching Techniques for Mycology: 5. Basidiobolus ranarum
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