BioInfo (UK)

Viola L. (violets, pansies)

BioImages BioImages (www.bioimages.org.uk) has 196 images of Viola (violets, pansies)

NBN NBN (data.nbn.org.uk) has the UK distribution map of Viola (violets, pansies)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Genus)

Taxon Rank #refs #webs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

anon., 2012 Viola
Gregory, E.S., 1912 British Violets

General Works

Britton, C.E., 1904 Floral variations among Surrey violets

Viola may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
PLANTAE
(plants)
TRACHEOPHYTA
(vascular plants)
MAGNOLIOPSIDA
(flowering plants)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

Associated with Viola:

is foodplant of larva Orobitis cyaneus - Violet Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Bullock, J.A., 1992
is galled by larva Dasineura violae - a gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
bud (live, distorted) live, distorted bud has sap sucked by Aulacorthum (Neomyzus) circumflexum - Mottled Arum Aphid, Crescent-marked Lily Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Captivity Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [indoors and under glass]
flower (live, distorted) live, distorted flower has sap sucked by Aulacorthum (Neomyzus) circumflexum - Mottled Arum Aphid, Crescent-marked Lily Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Captivity Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [indoors and under glass]
flower bud (killed or weakened) killed or weakened flower bud may be infected and damaged by Aphelenchoides blastophthorus - Scabious Bud Eelworm (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [bud killed or produces poor flower]
growth (young) (stunted, distorted, scarred) stunted, distorted, scarred growth (young) may be infected and damaged by Aphelenchoides fragariae - Leaf Eelworm (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae) Major Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
leaf (fading) fading leaf is spotted by epiphyllous, numerous, scattered, brownish pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph Septoria violae - a coelomycete (Capnodiales: Mycosphaerellaceae) UK/Ireland Grove, W.B., 1935 [causes roundish, 5-10mm diam., pallid, zoned spots with broad reddish-brown borders],
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
leaf (live, distorted) live, distorted leaf has sap sucked by Aulacorthum (Neomyzus) circumflexum - Mottled Arum Aphid, Crescent-marked Lily Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Captivity Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [indoors and under glass]
leaf (live) live leaf is galled by communal larva Dasineura affinis - Violet Leaf Midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [leaf thickens and rolls upwards and inwards],
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
leaf (live) live leaf is galled by Myzus (Myzus) ornatus - Violet Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Major Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
leaf (live) live leaf is parasitised by hypophyllous sporangium Peronospora violae - Pansy Downy Mildew (Peronosporales: Peronosporaceae) UK/Ireland Restricted Preece, T.F., 2002,
Hall, G., 1980
leaf (yellow, transparent) yellow, transparent leaf may be infected and damaged by Aphelenchoides fragariae - Leaf Eelworm (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae) Major Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [leaf turns yellow and transparent from the margin]
leaf leaf is galled by Eriophyes violae - a gall mite (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae) Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
leaf leaf is galled by Peronospora violae - Pansy Downy Mildew (Peronosporales: Peronosporaceae) Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
leaf leaf is mined by larva Galiomyza violiphaga - a leaf-mining fly (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Restricted Robbins, R., 1990 [a short corridor leading to an upper surface blotch],
Spencer, K.A., 1972 [shallow white blotch mine with short linear initial section]
leaf leaf may have puparium Galiomyza violiphaga - a leaf-mining fly (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Restricted Spencer, K.A., 1972
ovary ovary is galled by larva Calliopum aeneum agg. - a pair of similar lauxaniid flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae) Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
root (rotten) rotten root may be infected and damaged by oospore Aphanomyces euteiches - a water-mould (Saprolegniales: Leptolegniaceae) UK/Ireland Moore, W.C., 1959
stem (live, distorted) live, distorted stem has sap sucked by Aulacorthum (Neomyzus) circumflexum - Mottled Arum Aphid, Crescent-marked Lily Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Captivity Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [indoors and under glass]
stem stem is galled by Peronospora violae - Pansy Downy Mildew (Peronosporales: Peronosporaceae) Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986
stipule (fading) fading stipule is spotted by epiphyllous, numerous, scattered, brownish pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph Septoria violae - a coelomycete (Capnodiales: Mycosphaerellaceae) UK/Ireland Grove, W.B., 1935 [causes roundish, 5-10mm diam., pallid, zoned spots with broad reddish-brown borders],
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995

Viola may be associated with more taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

PLANTAE
(plants)
TRACHEOPHYTA
(vascular plants)
MAGNOLIOPSIDA
(flowering plants)
EU-DICOTS
(dicotyledonous flowering plants)
Herbaceous Plants (via Violaceae)

References

Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants
Bullock, J.A., 1992 Host Plants of British Beetles: A List of Recorded Associations
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995 Fungi of the South East England
Grove, W.B., 1935 British Stem- and Leaf- Fungi: Coelomycetes Vol. I … Sphaeropsidales with hyaline conidia
Hall, G., 1980 Peronospora violae
Moore, W.C., 1959 British Parasitic Fungi
Preece, T.F., 2002 A Checklist of the Downy Mildews (Peronosporaceae) of the British Isles
Robbins, R., 1990 A Provisional Atlas of The Leaf Miners of Warwickshire, with notes on others occurring in the Midlands
Spencer, K.A., 1972 Diptera: Agromyzidae
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986 Provisional Keys to British Plant Galls
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