BioInfo (UK)

MAGNOLIOPSIDA (flowering plants)

BioImages BioImages (www.bioimages.org.uk) has 20535 images of MAGNOLIOPSIDA (flowering plants)

NBN NBN (data.nbn.org.uk) has the UK distribution map of MAGNOLIOPSIDA (flowering plants)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Class)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs
ACORALES (an order of flowering plants) Order 2 subtaxa    
ACORACEAE (sweet flags) Family 2 subtaxa    
Acorus calamus L. (Sweet-flag) Species   1 6
Acorus gramineus Aiton (Slender Sweet-flag) Species   1  
EU-DICOTS (dicotyledonous flowering plants) Subclass 2227 subtaxa 728 31436
LILIIDAE (monocotyledonous flowering plants) Subclass 520 subtaxa 320 6309
MAGNOLIIDAE Novak ex Takht., 1967 (a subclass of flowering plants) Subclass   1  
PRE-DICOTS (primitive angiosperms) Subclass 21 subtaxa 11 154
(Climbing plants) (climbing plants) Informal 20 subtaxa 3 303
(Succulent plants) (succulent plants) Informal 21 subtaxa 7 75
(Tall Woody Herbs) (tall woody herbs) Informal 287 subtaxa 66 3245

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

British Wild Flowers: http://www.british-wild-flowers.co.uk/ British Wild Flowers
Irish Wildflowers: http://www.irishwildflowers.ie/ Irish Wildflowers
Wild Flowers of the British Isles: http://www.ukwildflowers.com/ Wild Flowers of the British Isles
Crawley, M., 2005 The Flora of Berkshire
Floral Images: http://www.floralimages.co.uk Floral Images
Wild Flower Finder: http://wildflowerfinder.org.uk/ Wild Flower Finder
Fisher, J., 1991 (Rare species) A Colour Guide to Rare Wild Flowers
Garrard I. & Streeter D.T., 1998 The Wild Flowers of the British Isles
Find Wild Flowers: http://www.botanicalkeys.co.uk/flora/ Find Wild Flowers
Hayward, J., 1995 A New Key to Wild Flowers
King, A., 1957 (Garden flowers) The Observer's Book of Garden Flowers
Wild Plants of the British Isles: http://www.ukwildflowers.com Wild Plants of the British Isles
Poland, J. & Clement, E., 2009 The Vegetative Key to the British Flora
Rose, F. & O'Reilly, C., 2006 The Wild Flower Key - How to identify wild flowers, trees and shrubs in Britain and Ireland
Rose, F., 1981 The Wild Flower Key - British Isles - N.W. Europe
Stace, C., 2010 New Flora of the British Isles (Ed 3)
Stokoe, W.J. The Observer's Book of Wild Flowers
Leif & Anita Stridvall's Botanical Site: http://www.stridvall.se/la/index.php Leif & Anita Stridvall's Botanical Site
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): http://users.skynet.be/jjw.myco.mons Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

Arable Plants

Francis, S.A., 2009 British Field Crops: a pocket guide to the identification, history and uses of arable crops in Great Britain
Wilson, P. & King, M., 2003 Arable Plants - a Field Guide

Drawings

Fitch, W.H., Smith, W.G., et al, 1924 Illustrations of the British flora
Ross-Craig, S., 1948 Drawings of British Plants being Illustrations of the Species of Flowering Plants Growing naturally in the British Isles

Garden plants

Univerität Karlsruhe (TH) Botanischer Garten: http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/%7EBotanischer-Garten/Fotoarchiv/BG-Foto-Archiv/html Univerität Karlsruhe (TH) Botanischer Garten

Littoral

Strandline/Exotics
Nelson, E.C., 2000 Sea Beans & Nickar Nuts
Trewella, S. & Hatcher, J., 2015 The Essential Guide to Beachcombing and the Strandline

Pollen

Atlas Hymenoptera - pollens: http://zoologie.umh.ac.be/hymenoptera/galerie/exploredb.aspx?parent=50 Atlas Hymenoptera - pollens
Sawyer, R., 1981 Pollen Identification for Beekeepers

Techniques

Bebbington, A. & J., 1996 Describing Flowers

General Works

Darwin, C. The Different forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species
Presland, J., 2005 Racemose or cymose? - That's the question

Aliens

Hill, M. et al, 2005 Audit of non-native species in England
Morrien, E. et al, 2010 Climate change and invasion by intracontinental range-expanding exotic plants: the role of biotic interactions

Aquatic plants

Preston, C.D. & Croft, J.M., 1997 Aquatic plants in Britain and Ireland

Classic literature

Cole, R.V., 1920 The artistic anatomy of trees
Lubbock, J., 1888 Flowers, fruits and leaves
Lubbock, J., 1892 A contribution to our knowledge of seedlings (vol 1)
Lubbock, J., 1892 A contribution to our knowledge of seedlings (vol 2)
Lubbock, J., 1899 On buds and stipules

Code

Brickell, C.D. et al. (eds), 2009 International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants

Ecology

Hopkins, J., 2003 Some aspects of geology and the British Flora

Journals

Plant pathology
PRAs for consultation on pest risk management Journal

Mycorrhiza

Mycorrhizal Applications, Inc. Mycorrhizal Status of Plant Families and Genera

Nature conservation

Everett, S., 2007 British wild plants for wildlife schemes
Fitzgerald, R. & Wyse Jackson, M., 2005 Telling the wood from the trees in Killarney
Pearman, D. & Walker, K., 2004 Comment: Rare plant introductions in the UK: creative conservation or wildflower gardening?

Plant pathology

Crop Monitor: http://www.cropmonitor.co.uk/ (Pest and Disease activity in UK arable crops) Crop Monitor
Netherlands Plant Protection Service - pest reports: http://www.vwa.nl/onderwerpen/english/dossier/pest-reporting/pest-reports Netherlands Plant Protection Service - pest reports
Alford, D.V., 2011 Plant Pests
Fletcher, H.J., 1976 Some interesting pathogens of natural vegetation
Viruses
Plant Viruses Online: http://image.fs.uidaho.edu/vide/refs.htm Plant Viruses Online
Electron Micrographs of Plant Viruses: http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/ppi/links/pplinks/virusems/ Electron Micrographs of Plant Viruses

Pollen

Storey, M.W., 2010 Examining and Identifying Pollen

Regional studies

Cooper, E.A. & Proctor, M.C.F., 1998 Malham Tarn National Nature Reserve: The Vegetation of Malham Tarn Moss and Fens
Greenwood, E.F., 2005 Changing Flora of the Lancaster Canal in West Lancashire (v.c. 60)
Proctor, M.C.F., 1974 The Vegetation of Malham Tarn Fens

Societies

British Association of Nature Conservationists: http://www.banc.org.uk British Association of Nature Conservationists

UK NGO's

BTCV - British Trust for Conservation Volunteers: http://www2.btcv.org.uk/ BTCV - British Trust for Conservation Volunteers

MAGNOLIOPSIDA may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
PLANTAE
(plants)
TRACHEOPHYTA
(vascular plants)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

Associated with MAGNOLIOPSIDA:

(live, stunted, distorted) live, stunted, distorted has sap sucked by Brachycaudus helichrysi - Leaf-curling Plum Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
(live) live may be infected and damaged by Ditylenchus dipsaci - Stem Eelworm, Stem and Bulb Eelworm (Tylenchida: Anguinidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [affects over 400 different genera worldwide]
(live) live may have Chaetanaphothrips orchidii - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Captivity Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976 [in greenhouses]
(live) live may have Hercinothrips bicinctus - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Captivity Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976 [in glasshouses]
(live) live may have Hercinothrips femoralis - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Captivity Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976 [in glasshouses]
(live) live may have female Thrips tabaci - Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
(live) live may have male Thrips tabaci - Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
(live) live may have larva Thrips tabaci - Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976
(rotten) rotten may house imago Euheptaulacus villosus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
(rotten) rotten may house imago Heptaulacus testudinarius - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
(submerged) submerged is decayed by apothecium Niptera guestphalica - a discomycete (Helotiales: Dermateaceae) Dennis, R.W.G., 1972
is foodplant of Bagous (Bagous) tempestivus - a weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) UK/Ireland Morris, M.G., 2002
is foodplant of Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis - a glasshouse thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Captivity Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [in glasshouses]
is foodplant of Taeniothrips atratus - Carnation Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [outdoors]
is foodplant of superficial, clustered pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph Phoma glomerata - a coelomycete (Pleosporales) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
is foodplant of pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph Phoma macrostoma - a coelomycete (Pleosporales) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
is foodplant of pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph Phoma violacea - a coelomycete (Pleosporales) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
may be infected and damaged by Arabis Mosaic virus - a phytopathogenic virus Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
has sap sucked by Gonocerus acuteangulatus - Box Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)
has sap sucked by Aphis (Aphis) fabae - Black Bean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Rotheray, G.E., 1989
has sap sucked by Macrosiphum (Macrosiphum) euphorbiae - Potato Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Rotheray, G.E., 1989
has sap sucked by Myzus (Myzus) ornatus - Violet Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998,
Rotheray, G.E., 1989
has sap sucked by Myzus (Nectarosiphon) ascalonicus - Shallot Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Rotheray, G.E., 1989
has sap sucked by Myzus (Nectarosiphon) persicae - Peach-potato Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Rotheray, G.E., 1989
has sap sucked by Aulacorthum solani - Glasshouse and Potato Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Rotheray, G.E., 1989
anther anther is foodplant of adult Orsodacne cerasi - a leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Cox, M.L., 2007
bark, tree (young) bark of tree (young) is foodplant of imago Hylobius (Callirus) abietis - Pine Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Heritage, S & Moore, R., 2001
bases bases may house Aegialia (Aegialia) arenaria - a scarab beetle (Coleoptera: Aegialiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
bases bases may house Rhyssemus germanus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
corm corm may contain Blaniulus guttulatus - Spotted Snake Millipede (Julida: Blaniulidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
debris (dead, decayed) dead, decayed debris is decayed by fruitbody Typhula hollandii - a minute club fungus (Agaricales: Typhulaceae) UK/Ireland Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [in fork of tree]
debris (dead, decaying) dead, decaying debris is decayed by fruitbody Psathyrella spadiceogrisea - Spring Brittlestem (Agaricales: Psathyrellaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
debris (decaying) decaying debris may contain larva Musca domestica - House-fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Fonseca, E.C.M. d’Assis, 1968 [esp. in refuse dumps]
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may contain larva Aphodius (Agrilinus) ater - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may contain larva Aphodius (Aphodius) fimetarius - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may contain larva Aphodius (Aphodius) foetidus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986 [on light soils]
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may contain larva Aphodius (Calomosternus) granarius - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may contain larva Aphodius (Chilothorax) distinctus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may contain larva Aphodius (Esymus) pusillus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may contain larva Aphodius (Melinopterus) prodromus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may contain larva Aphodius (Melinopterus) sphacelatus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may house imago Aphodius (Aphodius) fimetarius - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may house imago Aphodius (Aphodius) foetidus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986 [on light soils]
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may house imago Aphodius (Chilothorax) distinctus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may shelter larva Aphodius (Plagiogonus) arenarius - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986 [in open, dry, sandy and chalky areas]
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may house imago Aphodius (Agrilinus) ater - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may house imago Aphodius (Calomosternus) granarius - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may house imago Aphodius (Esymus) pusillus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may house imago Aphodius (Melinopterus) prodromus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may house imago Aphodius (Melinopterus) sphacelatus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
debris (decomposing) decomposing debris may house imago Aphodius (Plagiogonus) arenarius - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986 [in open, dry, sandy and chalky areas]
debris (old, dead) old, dead debris is decayed by fruitbody Erythricium laetum - a resupinate basidiomycete (Polyporales: Corticiaceae) UK/Ireland Robinson, K., 2007
debris, compost (decomposing) decomposing debris, compost may contain larva Aphodius (Eupleurus) subterraneus - a dung beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
flower (live) live flower is foodplant of Frankliniella intonsa - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
flower (live) live flower is foodplant of male Thrips atratus - Carnation Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
flower (live) live flower is foodplant of female Thrips atratus - Carnation Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
flower (live) live flower is foodplant of larva Thrips atratus - Carnation Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
flower (pollen) flower (pollen) is visited for nectar and/or pollen by adult Chrysopidae - green lacewings (Neuroptera) Majerus, M. & Kearns, P., 1989 [feeds on pollen]
flower flower is foodplant of Aeolothrips intermedius - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) UK/Ireland Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Leptura aurulenta - Golden-haired Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by adult Leptura quadrifasciata - Four-banded Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Alosterna tabacicolor - Tobacco-coloured Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Anastrangalia sanguinolenta - Blood-red Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Judolia sexmaculata - Three-banded Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by adult Pachytodes cerambyciformis - Speckled Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Paracorymbia fulva - Tawny Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Pseudovadonia livida - Fairy-ring Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Rutpela maculata - Harlequin Longhorn, Black-and-yellow Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Stenurella melanura - Black-striped Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Stenurella nigra - Small Black Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Stictoleptura rubra - Red Longhorn Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Grammoptera abdominalis - Black Grammoptera (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by Grammoptera ruficornis - Common Grammoptera (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Grammoptera ustulata - Burnt-tip Grammoptera (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006
flower flower is visited for nectar and/or pollen by imago Drymeia hamata - a muscid fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Restricted Fonseca, E.C.M. d’Assis, 1968
flower flower is associate of imago Tenthredinidae - a family of sawflies (Hymenoptera) Benson, R.B., 1952 [feeds on insects]
fruit fruit may be infected and damaged by Rhizopus stolonifer - a pin mould (Mucorales: Mucoraceae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [causes a pale brown rot, which extends rapidly and bears pin-mould sporophores.]
growth (young) (stunted, distorted, scarred) stunted, distorted, scarred growth (young) may be infected and damaged by Aphelenchoides fragariae - Leaf Eelworm (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
leaf (crumpled, distorted) crumpled, distorted leaf may be infected and damaged by Aphelenchoides fragariae - Leaf Eelworm (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
leaf (dead, decayed) dead, decayed leaf is decayed by fruitbody Phlebiella paludicola - a resupinate fungus (Polyporales: Xenasmataceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [in marshes and fens]
leaf (dead, fallen, decayed) dead, fallen, decayed leaf is decayed by fruitbody Physalacria stilboidea - a chanterelle (Agaricales: Physalacriaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
leaf (dead, fallen) dead, fallen leaf is associate of fruitbody Marasmius corbariensis - a parachute (Agaricales: Marasmiaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
leaf (live) live leaf has sap sucked by Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae - Water-lily Aphid, Water Lily Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [water plants]
leaf (live) live leaf is grazed by web-dwelling mainly hypophyllous, colonial Tetranychus cinnabarinum - Carmine Spider Mite (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) Captivity Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [mainly indoors and in glasshouses. Causes fine light speckling or localised yellow spots on upper surface of leaf]
leaf (live) live leaf is grazed by web-dwelling mainly hypophyllous, colonial Tetranychus urticae - Twospotted Spider Mite, Red Spider Mite (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) Captivity Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [mainly indoors and in glasshouses. Causes fine light speckling or localised yellow spots on upper surface of leaf]
leaf (wet, decayed, among Sphagnum) wet, decayed, among Sphagnum leaf is associate of apothecium Pezoloma iodocyanescens - a discomycete (Leotiales: Leotiaceae) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1998 [on wet leaves and other debris among Sphagnum]
leaf-mine (end of) leaf-mine (end of) may house puparium Chromatomyia horticola - a leaf-mining fly (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Spencer, K.A., 1972
leaf leaf is foodplant of imago Hylobius (Callirus) abietis - Pine Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Morris, M.G., 2002
leaf leaf is mined by larva Orthochaetes insignis - a weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) UK/Ireland Morris, M.G., 2002
leaf leaf is mined by larva Orthochaetes setiger - a weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Foreign Morris, M.G., 2002
leaf leaf is mined by larva Chromatomyia horticola - a leaf-mining fly (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Spencer, K.A., 1972 [mine linear, whitish, both upper and lower surface]
leaf leaf is mined by larva Chromatomyia syngenesiae - Chrysanthemum Leaf Miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Spencer, K.A., 1972 [mine linear, whitish, both upper and lower surface]
leaf leaf is grazed by nocturnal larva Rhogogaster viridis - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952
leaf leaf is grazed by nocturnal larva Tenthredo (Eurogaster) mesomela - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952
leaves (dead, fallen, decayed) dead, fallen, decayed leaves is decayed by fruitbody Psathyrella noli-tangere - a brittlestem (Agaricales: Psathyrellaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 [in wet places]
litter (dead, decayed) dead, decayed litter is decayed by fruitbody Sistotrema subtrigonospermum - a basidiomycete fungus (Cantharellales: Hydnaceae) Roberts, P., 1996
litter (decaying) decaying litter is decayed by erumpent to superficial perithecium Scopinella solani - an ascomycete fungus (Sordariales) Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997
petal petal is foodplant of Frankliniella occidentalis - Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Captivity Kirk, W.D.J., 1996 [mainly in glasshouses]
pollen grain (dead) dead pollen grain is decayed by Rhizophydium sphaerotheca - a chytrid (Rhizophydiales: Rhizophydiaceae) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
pollen? pollen? is foodplant of adult Bruchus rufimanus - Bean Beetle, Bean Seed Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Cox, M.L., 2007
pollen? pollen? is foodplant of adult Bruchus rufipes - a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Cox, M.L., 2007
pollen pollen is foodplant of adult Bruchidius olivaceus - a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Cox, M.L., 2007
pollen pollen is foodplant of adult Orsodacne cerasi - a leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Cox, M.L., 2007
pollen pollen is foodplant of male Thrips flavus - Yellow Flower-thrips, Honeysuckle Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976,
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of female Thrips flavus - Yellow Flower-thrips, Honeysuckle Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976,
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of larva Thrips flavus - Yellow Flower-thrips, Honeysuckle Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976,
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of female Thrips fuscipennis - Rose Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976,
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of male Thrips fuscipennis - Rose Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976,
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of larva Thrips fuscipennis - Rose Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976,
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of male Thrips major - Rubus Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976,
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of female Thrips major - Rubus Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976,
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of larva Thrips major - Rubus Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976,
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of female Thrips vulgatissimus - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976 [mainly white flowered species],
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of male Thrips vulgatissimus - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976 [mainly white flowered species],
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
pollen pollen is foodplant of larva Thrips vulgatissimus - a thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) UK/Ireland Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976 [mainly white flowered species],
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996
refuse refuse may house imago Oxyomus sylvestris - a scarab beetle (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae) Jessop, L., 1986
root (live) live root is parasitised by Olpidium brassicae - a chytridiomycete fungus (Spizellomycetales: Olpidiaceae) Webster, J., 1980
root root is galled by Meloidogyne - root-knot eelworms (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
root root is grazed by subterranean larva Otiorhynchus (Dorymerus) sulcatus - Vine Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
root root is grazed by Longidorus - needle eelworms (Dorylaimida (Order): Longidoridae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
root root is grazed by Xiphinema - dagger eelworms (Dorylaimida (Order): Xiphinematidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
root root is grazed by Trichodorus - stubby-root eelworms (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
root root may be infected and damaged by Pratylenchus - root-lesion eelworms (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [Plants become stunted, yellow, wilt and may die]
root root may be infected and damaged by Dematophora anamorph Dematophora necatrix - an anamorphic fungus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995 [causes white rootrot of herbaceous crops]
root root is decayed by Helicobasidium longisporum - a ustilaginomycete (Helicobasidiales: Helicobasidiaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
seed seed has sap sucked by nymph Rhyparochromus pini - a ground bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
seed seed has sap sucked by adult Rhyparochromus pini - a ground bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
stem (hollow) hollow stem may house hibernating larva Ametastegia (Ametastegia) glabrata - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952
stem (hollow) hollow stem may house hibernating prepupa? Ametastegia (Ametastegia) glabrata - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952
stem stem may house hibernating prepupa Ametastegia (Protemphytus) tenera - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952
stick (dead) dead stick is decayed by fruitbody Coprinellus subdisseminatus - an inkcap (Agaricales: Psathyrellaceae) Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005
tuber tuber may contain Blaniulus guttulatus - Spotted Snake Millipede (Julida: Blaniulidae) Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
wood (soft) soft wood may house hibernating larva Ametastegia (Ametastegia) glabrata - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952
wood (soft) soft wood may house hibernating prepupa? Ametastegia (Ametastegia) glabrata - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952
wood (soft) soft wood may house hibernating prepupa Ametastegia (Protemphytus) tenera - a sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) Benson, R.B., 1952

Magnoliopsida may be associated with more taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

PLANTAE
(plants)
TRACHEOPHYTA
(vascular plants)

Further Information

Lab. techniques Examining and Identifying Pollen

The following account describes a simple technique for collecting pollen from flowers and preparing it for microscopic examination. It is based on Appendix D of White, 1999.

Materials:

• Glycerine Jelly
• Safranin in cellosolve [poisonous - do not swallow]
• Alcohol: preferably isopropanol (=isopropyl alcohol)
• Water

Only small bottles of the above chemicals are required.

The alcohol is used to de-wax the pollen. Isopropanol is preferred to ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the latter is said to cause permanent contraction of the cytoplasm. Ether (diethyl ether) is even better but highly flammable and evaporates so readily that it's difficult to use and store; it's also much harder to obtain.

• Laundry marker for labelling slides and pipettes
• Clean glass microscope slides (say 10)
• Coverslips
• A slide box to hold the slides vertically, so that the surfaces do not touch.
• A few disposable plastic pipettes.

Obviously you'll need a compound ("slide") microscope, ideally with a x100 oil-immersion objective. A dissection microscope is also useful to check the progress of staining but has insufficient magnification to identify pollen.

Disposable pipettes cost a few pence each. If you plan to reuse them, label with the reagent used - a laundry marker is ideal. If used carefully to avoid contamination they last for years.

Preparation:

The first thing is to prepare the slides for collecting pollen. We'll prepare glycerine jelly smears which are used to capture a thin layer of pollen.

Glycerine jelly smears with pollen on all look the same, so label the slides before you start! Either stick on a blank slide label or write a number in the top left corner with the laundry pen. The other reason for labelling is that it is quite difficult to see which side of the slide the smear is on, and only too easy to smear the pollen on the wrong side - it is very annoying to watch all your pollen wash away as soon as you start the prep.! Put the labelled slides in the box.

Warm the glycerine jelly by placing the bottle in a bath of hot water. (An old single portion beans can with the lid cut off is ideal.) When the jelly has melted, dip in a clean fingertip and make a large smear on a clean slide. Give it a few minutes to set, then wash and dry your finger and transfer a smear from this smear to the other slides (a smear from a smear). I do two fingerprint-sized smears on each slide, to give me two chances.

The master slide is reusable for another batch of smears so put that in the box too.

The smears will remain tacky for two to three weeks, depending on temperature, but they will last a whole summer if the box of slides is stored in a re-sealable polythene bag in the fridge.

Collection of pollen from flowers:

Collection of pollen is as simple as touching the anthers a few times against the smear. For many flowers this can be done in the field, although it may be necessary to remove a few petals. A pair of fine forceps is useful for this and for very small flowers which can be plucked and touched against the smear. Don’t worry about getting too much pollen; unless the smear is very thick, only a monolayer will stick.

Sampling of pollen from insects:

You could use the same technique to sample pollen load — even from the living insect, although the sample would be biased towards the pollen most recently collected. Or you could manually transfer the pollen onto the slide. A mounted needle dipped in glycerine jelly would even enable you to sample the pollen from specific hairs (taking care not to contaminate your glycerine jelly).

Pollen may be extracted from honey by diluting in warm water, then filtering. A similar technique would give an unbiased sample from pollen load. It may help to first wet it with a little alcohol.

Examining the pollen:

It’s useful to have some 2" squares of paper tissue to hand (paper tissue cut into squares is fine, paper serviettes are better, loo paper is too dusty) to soak up fluids, wipe spills etc. You'll also need a receptacle for waste tissue and to catch the washings; an old margarine carton is fine. Lab coat or old clothes are also recommended and you may want to protect the carpet.

With a fine pipette, drip a few drops of isopropyl alcohol onto the smear and let them run off. Make sure the whole smear is wetted. This only takes a few moments and dewaxes the pollen. (This is when you find out if you put the pollen on the wrong side of the slide!) Soak up the excess with paper tissue, taking care not to touch the smear itself.

Using a glass or smooth metal rod or fine pipette, add a drop of Safranin in cellosolve/alcohol. It will initially form a discrete drop, but this will soon creep over the smear. Tilt the slide to help it run in the right direction. Leave for a few seconds then gently wash off with a few drips of water. Again, soak up the excess with paper tissue. Check the pollen under a dissection microscope: it need only be slightly coloured - enough to see it. Add another droplet of stain if necessary and repat. Don't overstain as this obscures detail. Some pollens (eg umbellifers, pink family) stain more easily than others (eg borage family).

When sufficiently stained, gently lower a coverslip onto your prep. and examine immediately. Don’t let the pollen dry out. The x10 objective is usually appropriate for gross structure, with x40 for surface detail; only the very smallest pollens (forget-me-nots!) require oil-immersion (x100). A green filter often makes the red-stained details stand out better, especially for photography. Try to avoid sliding the coverslip or crashing into it with the objective as this may cause the grains to clump or burst.

"Glycerine Jelly for Pollen" contains basic fuchsin instead of safranin but gives similar results.

White, 1999, describes how to prepare permanent mounts using aqueous mountant or glycerine jelly.

Sawyer, 1981, and the related CD enable identification of pollens from most common flowers.

A word of warning: safranin, like most microscopical stains, will stain most things it comes into contact with including fingers, worksurfaces and sinks. Glazed or stainless steel should be OK, but modern polymer or geological materials could be permanently marked.

Finally, pollen is the most efficient contaminant known to science! Work clean. Keep slide boxes and chemical bottles closed when not in use. Wash slides and coverslips thoroughly before re-use.

Acknowledgments:

Thanks to David Rennison for helpful advice and discussions.

References:

Sawyer, R., 1981, Pollen Identification for Beekeepers, Cardiff Academic Press, ISBN 0 906449 29 4
(There is also an illustrated CD related to this. Both are available from Northern Bee Books)

White, J., 1999, Pollen, its Collection and Preparation for the Microscope, NBS
(available from Brunel Microscopes.)

Suppliers:
Brunel Microscopes, http://www.brunelmicroscopes.co.uk/
Northern Bee Books, http://www.beedata.com/beebooks.htm

References

Benson, R.B., 1952 Hymenoptera: 2. Symphyta. Section (b)
Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants
Cox, M.L., 2007 Atlas of the Seed and Leaf Beetles of Britain and Ireland
Dennis, R.W.G., 1972 Niptera Fr. versus Belonopsis Rehm
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995 Fungi of the South East England
Duff, A. (Illust: Lewington, R.), 2006 Identification - Longhorn Beetles: Part 1
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 Microfungi on Land Plants: An Identification Handbook
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1998 Microfungi on Miscellaneous Substrates: An Identification Handbook
Fonseca, E.C.M. d’Assis, 1968 Diptera: Cyclorrapha Calyptrata Sect (b) Muscidae
Heritage, S & Moore, R., 2001 The Assessment of Site Characteristics as Part of a Management Strategy to Reduce Damage by Hylobius
Jessop, L., 1986 Dung Beetles and Chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)
Kirk, W.D.J., 1996 Thrips
Legon, N.W. & Henrici, A. with Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005 Checklist of the British and Irish Basidiomycota
Majerus, M. & Kearns, P., 1989 Ladybirds
Morris, M.G., 2002 True Weevils (Part I): Family Curculionidae, subfamilies Raymondionyminae to Smicronychinae
Mound L.A., Morison, G.D., Pitkin, B.R. & Palmer, J.M., 1976 Thysanoptera
Roberts, P., 1996 New British Records 128: Sistotrema subtrigonospermum D. P. Rogers
Robinson, K., 2007 A Mycologist's Diary
Rotheray, G.E., 1989 Aphid Predators
Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles
Spencer, K.A., 1972 Diptera: Agromyzidae
Webster, J., 1980 Introduction to Fungi
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