BioInfo (UK)

DIPTERA (two-winged flies)

BioImages BioImages (www.bioimages.org.uk) has 10334 images of DIPTERA (two-winged flies)

NBN NBN (data.nbn.org.uk) has the UK distribution map of DIPTERA (two-winged flies)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Order)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs
BRACHYCERA (short-horned flies) Suborder 1119 subtaxa 663 3631
NEMATOCERA (thread-horned flies, gnat) Suborder 285 subtaxa 216 428

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Diptera Info: www.diptera.info Diptera Info
Online-Keys.net: http://www.online-keys.net/infusions/keys/keys_view.php Online-Keys.net
Colyer, C.N. & Hammond, C.O., 1951 Flies of the British Isles
Diptera (flies): https://www.flickr.com/photos/63075200@N07/collections/72157629586945825/ Diptera (flies)
Guthrie, M., 1989 Animals of the Surface Film
Haenni, J-P, 2004 Les Mouches - planches d'Eugène Séguy / Flies - plates by Eugène Séguy
McAlpine, J.F. et al, 1981 Manual of Nearctic Diptera
Oldroyd, H., 1954 Diptera 1. Introduction and Key to Families
Papp, L. & Darvas, B., 2000 Palaearctic Diptera: Appendix
Pearce, E.K., 1921 Typical Flies - a photographic atlas
Scudder, G.G.E. & Cannings, R.A., 2006 The Diptera Families of British Columbia
Stubbs, A., 2003 Dipterists Forum Starter Pack
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): http://users.skynet.be/jjw.myco.mons Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

Aquatic

Nilsson, A. (ed.), 1996 Aquatic Insects of North Europe
Larvae
Nilsson, A. (ed.), 1996 Aquatic Insects of North Europe

Dung

Skidmore, P., 1991 Insects of the British Cow-Dung Community

Families

Ball, S., in prep. British Families of Diptera
Families of British Diptera: http://www.dipteristsforum.org.uk/wiki/families:diptera_families Families of British Diptera
Oosterbroek, P., 2006 The European Families of the Diptera: identification, diagnosis, biology
Unwin, D.M., 1981 A Key to the Families of British Diptera

Freshwater

Larvae
Module 11: identification of Diptera (true flies): https://www.fba.org.uk/identification-freshwater-invertebrates-species-level-distance-learning-course Module 11: identification of Diptera (true flies)

Host plants

Kirk, W.D.J., 1992 Insects on Cabbages and Oilseed Rape

Larvae

Smith, K.V.G., 1989 An Introduction to the immature stages of British Flies
Freshwater
Module 11: identification of Diptera (true flies): https://www.fba.org.uk/identification-freshwater-invertebrates-species-level-distance-learning-course Module 11: identification of Diptera (true flies)
Sundermann, A. Lohse, S., Beck, L.A. & Haase, P., 2007 Key to the larval stages of aquatic true flies (Diptera), based on the operational taxa list for running waters in Germany

Leaf-miners

György Csóka, 2003 Levélaknák és Levélaknázók - Leaf Mines and Leaf Miners
Robbins, R., 1990 A Provisional Atlas of The Leaf Miners of Warwickshire, with notes on others occurring in the Midlands

on thistles

Redfern, M., 1995 Insects and Thistles

Plant galls

Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2011 British Plant Galls
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986 Provisional Keys to British Plant Galls

General Works

Anatomical Atlas of Flies: http://www.ces.csiro.au/biology/fly/flyGlossary.html Anatomical Atlas of Flies
Dipterists Forum Website: http://www.dipteristsforum.org.uk Dipterists Forum Website
Chandler, P., 1966 Notes on some uncommon Diptera
Chandler, P., 1998 Checklists of Insects of the British Isles (New Series) Part 1: Diptera
Chandler, P.J. (ed), 2010 A Dipterist's handbook(2nd Edition)
Chandler, P.J., 2003 Corrections and changes to the Diptera Checklist (9)
Chandler, P.J., 2004 Corrections and changes to the Diptera Checklist (10)
Chandler, P.J., 2004 Corrections and changes to the Diptera Checklist (12)
Corrections and changes to the Irish Checklist (2)
Chandler, P.J., 2005 Changes to the Irish List (3)
Chandler, P.J., 2005 Corrections and changes to the Diptera Checklist (13)
Chandler, P.J., 2006 Corrections and changes to the Diptera Checklist (15)
Corrections and changes to the Irish Checklist (5)
Dipterists Forum, 2006 Dipterists Forum Starter Pack
Micropics: http://micropics.org.uk/index.htm Micropics
Hövemeyer, K. & Schauermann, J., 2002 Succession of Diptera on dead beech wood: A 10-year study
Hövemeyer, K., 1988 Diptera associated with dead beech wood
Marshall, S., 2012 The Flies - the natural history & diversity of Diptera
Papp, L. & Darvas, B., 2000 Palaearctic Diptera Vol 1: General and Applied Dipterology
Stubbs, A.E. & Chandler, P. (eds), 1978 A Dipterist's handbook
Finding the Fly Tree of Life: http://wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/files/5013/8608/5647/superflies_v4.pdf Finding the Fly Tree of Life

Dead wood

Alexander, K.N.A., 2002 The Invertebrates of Living and Decaying Timber in Britain and Ireland - a Provisional Annotated Checklist
Regional studies
Denton, J., & Chandler, P., 2005 Rotherfield Park, North Hampshire: An important site for Saproxylic Coleoptera, Diptera and other Insects
Skidmore, P., 2003 Saproxylic Insect Survey of the Virginia Water and Bishopsgate areas of Windsor Park, 2002-2003

Hosts

Buxton, P.A., 1954 British Diptera associated with Fungi. 2. Diptera bred from Myxomycetes

Journals

Dipterists Digest Journal
Dipterological Research Journal
Dipteroloogilisi Uurimusi Journal
International Journal of Dipterological Research Journal
Studia Dipterologica Journal
Bulletin of the Dipterists Forum Journal
Dipterists Digest (Second Series) (Dipterists Digest (2nd Series)) Journal
Fly Times Journal
Leaf-miners
British Leafminers Journal

Leaf-miners

UK Leafminers discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ukleafminers/join UK Leafminers discussion group

Suppliers

Polybags Ltd: http://www.polybags.co.uk Polybags Ltd

Survey Methods

Disney, R.H.L. et al, 1982 Collecting methods and adequacy of attempted faunal surveys, with reference to Diptera

DIPTERA may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
ANIMALIA
(animals)
EUMETAZOA
(metazoans)
ARTHROPODA
(arthropods)
HEXAPODA
(insects and other 6-legged organisms)
INSECTA
(true insects)
PTERYGOTA
(bees, beetles, dragonflies, flies, grasshoppers, moths and other winged insects)
Invertebrates (via Arthropoda)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

DIPTERA is associated with:

Tuberolachnus (Tuberolachnus) salignus - Large Willow Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeds on honeydew Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998
Phallus hadriani - Sand Stinkhorn, Dune Stinkhorn (Phallales: Phallaceae) feeds on spore mass of fruitbody UK/Ireland Shaw, D.E. & Roberts, P., 2002
adult Dactylorhiza maculata - Heath Spotted-orchid (Asparagales: Orchidaceae) adult pollinates or fertilises flower Harrap, A. & S., 2009
larva Conocybe - conecap toadstools (Agaricales: Bolbitiaceae) larva causes galls on fruitbody Evans, R.E., 1979
larva Daedalea quercina - Oak Mazegill (Polyporales: Fomitopsidaceae) larva causes galls on Evans, R.E., 1979

There may be more taxa associated with Diptera listed at higher taxonomic level

INSECTA
(true insects)

Associated with DIPTERA:

(dead, on ground) dead, on ground is parasitoid host of solitary (usually) stroma Cordyceps forquignonii - an ascomycete (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Dennis, R.W.G., 1978 [on the ground, esp in woods]
(in caves) in caves may attract synnematum of Polycephalomyces anamorph Polycephalomyces ramosus - an entomogenous fungus (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) Major Moss, M., Spooner, B. & Mitchell, D.W., 2007 [in caves]
(live) live may be infected by Erynia radicans - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982
is taken to the nest of female Crabro cribrarius - Slender Bodied Digger Wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Crabro peltarius - a digger wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Crossocerus (Blepharipus) capitosus - a digger wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Crossocerus (Blepharipus) megacephalus - a digger wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Crossocerus (Crossocerus) exiguus - a digger wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Crossocerus (Crossocerus) pusillus - a digger wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Crossocerus (Crossocerus) wesmaeli - Wesmael's Digger Wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Crossocerus (Cuphopterus) binotatus - a digger wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Crossocerus (Hoplocrabro) quadrimaculatus - Four-spotted Digger Wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Clytochrysus) cavifrons - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Clytochrysus) lapidarius - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Clytochrysus) ruficornis - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Clytochrysus) sexcinctus - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Ectemnius) borealis - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Ectemnius) dives - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Hypocrabro) continuus - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Hypocrabro) rubicola - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Metacrabro) cephalotes - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Ectemnius (Metacrabro) lituratus - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is taken to the nest of female Lindenius albilabris - a solitary wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
is predated by adult Dryophilocoris (Dryophilocoris) flavoquadrimaculatus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [small flies]
is predated by nymph Dryophilocoris (Dryophilocoris) flavoquadrimaculatus - a plantbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [small flies]
is predated by adult Orthotylus (Orthotylus) tenellus - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [small flies]
is predated by nymph Orthotylus (Orthotylus) tenellus - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 [small flies]
is predated by adult Reduvius personatus - an assassin bug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
is predated by nymph Reduvius personatus - an assassin bug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
is predated by leaf Drosera rotundifolia - Round-leaved Sundew (Caryophyllales: Droseraceae) UK/Ireland Major Darwin, C., 1875 [p2]
adult (live) live adult may be infected by Conidiobolus thromboides - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 [small diptera]
adult (live) live adult may be infected by Batkoa apiculata - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) UK/Ireland Wilding, N., 1983
adult (live) live adult may be infected by Batkoa papillata - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 [small diptera in wet places]
adult (live) live adult may be infected by Entomophthora culicis - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) UK/Ireland Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 [in wet places],
Wilding, N., 1983
adult (live) live adult may be infected by Entomophthora muscae - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982
adult (live) live adult may be infected by Erynia gracilis - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) UK/Ireland Wilding, N., 1983
adult (live) live adult may be infected by Zoophthora radicans - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) UK/Ireland Wilding, N., 1983
adult adult may be infected by pure white to grey or rarely green, shaggy rhizoids Erynia conica - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 [in wet places]
adult adult may be infected by Furia americana - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982
adult adult may be infected by Furia montana - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 [small diptera in wet places]
adult adult may be infected by few, large, white or greenish, disk-ended rhizoids Pandora dipterigena - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 [especially small flies and gnats]
adult adult may be infected by Pandora echinospora - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982
adult adult is predated by leaf Pinguicula vulgaris - Common Butterwort (Lamiales: Lentibulariaceae) Major Darwin, C., 1875 [p370]
larva (live) live larva is parasitised by Tolypocladium anamorph Tolypocladium cylindrosporum - an anamorphic entomophagous fungus (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Oxybelus uniglumis - Common Spiny Digger Wasp (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
larva larva is predated by adult Loricula elegantula - a minute bug (Hemiptera: Microphysidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
larva larva is predated by nymph Loricula elegantula - a minute bug (Hemiptera: Microphysidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
pupa pupa is parasitoid host of perithecium Torrubiella albotomentosa - an ascomycete (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1978 [in marshes],
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
pupa pupa may be infected by Cylindrodendrum anamorph Cylindrodendrum suffultum - an anamorphic fungus UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
rhizoids, adult (white to grey swollen) white to grey swollen rhizoids of adult may be infected by white to grey swollen rhizoids Erynia rhizospora - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 [small diptera in wet places]

Diptera may be associated with more taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

ANIMALIA
(animals)
ARTHROPODA
(arthropods)
INSECTA
(true insects)
Invertebrates (via Arthropoda)

References

Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants
Darwin, C., 1875 Insectivorous Plants
Dennis, R.W.G., 1978 British Ascomycetes
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995 Fungi of the South East England
Evans, R.E., 1979 Gall development in Fungi
Harrap, A. & S., 2009 Orchids of Britain & Ireland: a field and site guide
Macdonald, M.A., in prep. Forage, prey and host-parasite relationships of aculeates
Moss, M., Spooner, B. & Mitchell, D.W., 2007 Two rare and interesting entomogenous fungi from south-east England
Shaw, D.E. & Roberts, P., 2002 Bees and Phalloid Exudate
Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles
Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 Key to the Species of Entomophthora sensu lato
Wilding, N., 1983 Entomophthorales foray: 10 - 14 September 1982, Exeter University and Norwich
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